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2 Chronicles 36:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart against turning unto Jehovah, the God of Israel.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the LORD God of Israel.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— He also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar who had made him swear [allegiance] by God. But he stiffened his neck and hardened his heart against turning to the LORD God of Israel.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning to the LORD God of Israel.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him take oath by God; and he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from returning to Jehovah the God of Israel.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Moreover also—against King Nebuchadnezzar, he rebelled, who had made him swear by God,-and he stiffened his neck, and emboldened his heart, from turning unto Yahweh, God of Israel.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and also, against king Nebuchadnezzar he hath rebelled, who had caused him to swear by God, and he hardeneth his neck, and strengtheneth his heart, against turning back unto Jehovah, God of Israel.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— He also revolted from king Nabuchodonosor, who had made him swear by God: and he hardened his neck and his heart, from returning to the Lord the God of Israel.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And he also rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him sweare by God: but he stiffened his necke, and hardened his heart from turning vnto the LORD God of Israel.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— in that he rebelled against king Nebuchadnezzar{gr.Nabuchodonosor}, which he adjured him by God [not to do]: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart, so as not to return to the Lord God of Israel.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And he also rebelled against king Nevukhadnetztzar, who had made him swear by Elohim: but he stiffened his neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto Yahweh Elohim of Yisrael.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And he also x1571
(1571) Complement
גַּם
gam
{gam}
By contraction from an unused root meaning to gather; properly assemblage; used only adverbially also, even, yea, though; often repeated as correlation both... and.
rebelled 4775
{4775} Prime
מָרַד
marad
{maw-rad'}
A primitive root; to rebel.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
against king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
Nvanexxar נְבוּכַדנֶאצַּר, 5019
{5019} Prime
נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר
N@buwkadne'tstsar
{neb-oo-kad-nets-tsar'}
Of foreign derivation; Nebukadnetstsar (or retstsar, or retstsor), king of Babylon.
who x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
had made him swear 7650
{7650} Prime
שָׁבַע
shaba`
{shaw-bah'}
A primitive root; properly to be complete, but used only as a denominative from H7651; to seven oneself, that is, swear (as if by repeating a declaration seven times).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
by lhm אֱלֹהִים: 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
but he stiffened 7185
{7185} Prime
קָשָׁה
qashah
{kaw-shaw'}
A primitive root; properly to be dense, that is, tough or severe (in various applications).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
his neck, 6203
{6203} Prime
עֹרֶף
`oreph
{o-ref'}
From H6202; the nape or back of the neck (as declining); hence the back generally (whether literally or figuratively).
and hardened 553
{0553} Prime
אָמַץ
'amats
{aw-mats'}
A primitive root; to be alert, physically (on foot) or mentally (in courage).
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
his heart 3824
{3824} Prime
לֵבָב
lebab
{lay-bawb'}
From H3823; the heart (as the most interior organ); used also like H3820.
from turning 7725
{7725} Prime
שׁוּב
shuwb
{shoob}
A primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbially again.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
lhm אֱלֹהִים 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל. 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

2 Chronicles 36:13

_ _ who had made him swear by God — Zedekiah received his crown on the express condition of taking a solemn oath of fealty to the king of Babylon (Ezekiel 17:13); so that his revolt by joining in a league with Pharaoh-hophra, king of Egypt, involved the crime of perjury. His own pride and obdurate impiety, the incurable idolatry of the nation, and their reckless disregard of prophetic warnings, brought down on his already sadly reduced kingdom the long threatened judgments of God. Nebuchadnezzar, the executioner of the divine vengeance, commenced a third siege of Jerusalem, which, after holding out for a year and a half, was taken in the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah. It resulted in the burning of the temple, with, most probably, the ark, and in the overthrow of the kingdom of Judah (see on 2 Kings 25:1-7; see Ezekiel 12:13; Ezekiel 17:16).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on 2 Chronicles 36:11-21.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

2 Chronicles 36:13

By God — Who had required him to swear fealty and constant obedience to him by the true God, whom he called upon to be a witness against him if he broke his oath. So his rebellion was aggravated with perjury, and horrid contempt of God.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
rebelled:

2 Kings 24:20 For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, until he had cast them out from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.
Jeremiah 52:2-3 And he did [that which was] evil in the eyes of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done. ... For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, till he had cast them out from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.
Ezekiel 17:11-20 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, ... And I will spread my net upon him, and he shall be taken in my snare, and I will bring him to Babylon, and will plead with him there for his trespass that he hath trespassed against me.

who had:

Joshua 9:15 And Joshua made peace with them, and made a league with them, to let them live: and the princes of the congregation sware unto them.
Joshua 9:19-20 But all the princes said unto all the congregation, We have sworn unto them by the LORD God of Israel: now therefore we may not touch them. ... This we will do to them; we will even let them live, lest wrath be upon us, because of the oath which we sware unto them.
2 Samuel 21:2 And the king called the Gibeonites, and said unto them; (now the Gibeonites [were] not of the children of Israel, but of the remnant of the Amorites; and the children of Israel had sworn unto them: and Saul sought to slay them in his zeal to the children of Israel and Judah.)

stiffened:

2 Kings 17:4 And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as [he had done] year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison.
Nehemiah 9:16-17 But they and our fathers dealt proudly, and hardened their necks, and hearkened not to thy commandments, ... And refused to obey, neither were mindful of thy wonders that thou didst among them; but hardened their necks, and in their rebellion appointed a captain to return to their bondage: but thou [art] a God ready to pardon, gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and forsookest them not.
Isaiah 48:4 Because I knew that thou [art] obstinate, and thy neck [is] an iron sinew, and thy brow brass;

hardened:

Exodus 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
Exodus 8:32 And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.
Exodus 9:17 As yet exaltest thou thyself against my people, that thou wilt not let them go?
Nehemiah 9:29 And testifiedst against them, that thou mightest bring them again unto thy law: yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto thy commandments, but sinned against thy judgments, (which if a man do, he shall live in them;) and withdrew the shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear.
Romans 2:4-5 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? ... But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
Hebrews 3:8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness:
Hebrews 3:13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 8:15, 32; 9:17. Jsh 9:15, 19. 2S 21:2. 2K 17:4; 24:20. Ne 9:16, 29. Is 48:4. Jr 52:2. Ezk 17:11. Ro 2:4. He 3:8, 13.

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