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Amos 4:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, that crush the needy, that say unto their lords, Bring, and let us drink.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that [are] in the mountain of Samaria, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, which say to their masters, Bring, and let us drink.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Hear this word, you cows of Bashan who are on the mountain of Samaria, Who oppress the poor, who crush the needy, Who say to your husbands, “Bring now, that we may drink!”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Hear this word, ye heifers of Bashan, that [are] in the mountain of Samaria, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, which say to their masters, Bring, and let us drink.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, that crush the needy, that say to their lords, Bring, and let us drink:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Hear ye this word, ye heifers of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, who oppress the poor, who crush the needy,—who say to their lords, Bring in, and let us drink!
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, Who [are] in the mountain of Samaria, Who are oppressing the poor, Who are bruising the needy, Who are saying to their lords: 'Bring in, and we do drink.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Hear this word, ye fat kine that are in the mountains of Samaria: you that oppress the needy, and crush the poor: that say to your masters: Bring, and we will drink.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Heare this word yea kine of Bashan, that [are] in the mountaine of Samaria, which oppresse the poore, which crush the needy, which say to their masters; Bring, and let vs drinke.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Hear ye this word, ye heifers of the land of Bashan{gr.Basan} that are in the mountain of Samaria, that oppress the poor, and trample on the needy, which say to their masters, Give us that we may drink.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, that [are] in the mountain of Shomron, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, which say to their adonim, Bring, and let us drink.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Hear 8085
{8085} Prime
שָׁמַע
shama`
{shaw-mah'}
A primitive root; to hear intelligently (often with implication of attention, obedience, etc.; causatively to tell, etc.).
z8798
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
this x2088
(2088) Complement
זֶה
zeh
{zeh}
A primitive word; the masculine demonstrative pronoun, this or that.
word, 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
ye kine 6510
{6510} Prime
פָּרָה
parah
{paw-raw'}
Feminine of H6499; a heifer.
of Bn בָּשָׁן, 1316
{1316} Prime
בָּשָׁן
Bashan
{baw-shawn'}
Of uncertain derivation; Bashan (often with the article), a region East of the Jordan.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[are] in the mountain 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
of mrn שֹׁמרוֹן, 8111
{8111} Prime
שֹׁמְרוֹן
Shom@rown
{sho-mer-one'}
From the active participle of H8104; watch station; Shomeron, a place in Palestine.
which oppress 6231
{6231} Prime
עָשַׁק
`ashaq
{aw-shak'}
A primitive root (compare H6229); to press upon, that is, oopress, defraud, violate, overflow.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
the poor, 1800
{1800} Prime
דַּל
dal
{dal}
From H1809; properly dangling, that is, (by implication) weak or thin.
which crush 7533
{7533} Prime
רָצַץ
ratsats
{raw-tsats'}
A primitive root; to crack in pieces, literally or figuratively.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
the needy, 34
{0034} Prime
אֶבְיוֹן
'ebyown
{eb-yone'}
From H0014, in the sense of want (especially in feeling); destitute.
which say 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
to their nm אֲדֹנִים, 113
{0113} Prime
אָדוֹן
'adown
{aw-done'}
From an unused root (meaning to rule); sovereign, that is, controller (human or divine).
Bring, 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8685
<8685> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 731
and let us drink. 8354
{8354} Prime
שָׁתָה
shathah
{shaw-thaw'}
A primitive root; to imbibe (literally or figuratively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Amos 4:1

_ _ Amos 4:1-13. Denunciation of Israel’s nobles for oppression; and of the whole nation for idolatry; and for their being unreformed even by God’s judgments: therefore they must prepare for the last and worst judgment of all.

_ _ kine of Bashan — fat and wanton cattle such as the rich pasture of Bashan (east of Jordan, between Hermon and Gilead) was famed for (Deuteronomy 32:14; Psalms 22:12; Ezekiel 39:18). Figurative for those luxurious nobles mentioned, Amos 3:9, Amos 3:10, Amos 3:12, Amos 3:15. The feminine, kine, or cows, not bulls, expresses their effeminacy. This accounts for masculine forms in the Hebrew being intermixed with feminine; the latter being figurative, the former the real persons meant.

_ _ say to their masters — that is, to their king, with whom the princes indulged in potations (Hosea 7:5), and whom here they importune for more wine. “Bring” is singular, in the Hebrew implying that one “master” alone is meant.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Amos 4:1-5

_ _ It is here foretold, in the name of God, that oppressors shall be humbled and idolaters shall be hardened.

_ _ I. That proud oppressors shall be humbled for their oppressions: for he that does wrong shall receive according to the wrong that he has done. Now observe,

_ _ 1. How their sin is described, Amos 4:1. They are compared to the kine of Bashan, which were a breed of cattle very large and strong, especially if, though bred there, they were fed upon the mountain of Samaria, where the pastures were extraordinarily fat. Amos had been a herdsman, and he speaks in a dialect of his calling, comparing the rich and great men, that lived in luxury and wantonness, to the kine of Bashan, which were wanton and unruly, would not be kept within the bounds of their own pasture, But broke through the hedges, broke down all the fences, and trespassed upon the neighboring grounds; and not only so, but pushed and gored the smaller cattle that were not a match for them. Those that had their summer-houses upon the mountains of Samaria when they went thither for fresh air were as mischievous as the kine upon the mountains of Bashan and as injurious to those about them. (1.) They oppress the poor and needy themselves; they crush them, to squeeze something to themselves out of them. They took advantage of their poverty, and necessity, and inability to help themselves, to make them poorer and more necessitous than they were. They made use of their power as judges and magistrates for the invading of men's rights and properties, the poor not excepted; for they made no conscience of robbing even the hospital. (2.) They are in confederacy with those that do so. They say to their masters (to the masters of the poor, that abuse them and violently take from them what they have, when they ought to relieve them), “Bring, and let us drink; let us feast with you upon the gains of our oppression, and then we will protect you, and stand by you in it, and reject the appeals of the poor against you.” Note, What is got by extortion is commonly made use of as provisions for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof; and therefore men are tyrants to the poor because they are slaves to their appetites. Bring, and let us drink, is the language of those that crush the needy, as if the tears of the oppressed, mingled with their wine, made it drink the better. And by their associations for drinking and reveling, and an excess of riot, they strengthen their combinations for persecution and oppression, and harden the hearts of one another in it.

_ _ 2. How their punishment is described, Amos 4:2, Amos 4:3. God will take them away with hooks, and their posterity with fish-hooks; he will send the Assyrian army upon them, that shall make a prey of them, shall not only enclose the body of the nation in their net, but shall angle for particular persons, and take them prisoners and captives as with hooks and fish-hooks, shall draw them out of their own land as fish are drawn out of the water, which is their element, them and their children with them, or, They in their day shall be drawn out by one victorious enemy, and their posterity in their day by another, so that by a succession of destroying judgments they shall at length be wholly extirpated. These kine of Bashan thought they could no more be drawn out with a hook and a cord than the Leviathan can, Job 41:1, Job 41:2. But God will make them know that he has a hook for their nose and a bridle for their jaws, Isaiah 37:29. The enemy shall take them away as easily as the fisherman takes away the little fish, and shall make it their sport and recreation. When the enemy has made himself master of Samaria, then, (1.) Some shall attempt to escape by flight: You shall go out at the breaches made in the wall of the city, every cow at that which is before her, to shift for her own safety, and make the best of her way; and now the unruly kine of Bashan are tamed, and are themselves crushed, as they crushed the poor and needy. Note, Those to whom God has given a good pasture, if they are wanton in it, will justly be turned out of it; and those who will not be kept within the hedge of God's precept forfeit the benefit of the hedge of God's protection, and will be forced in vain to flee through the breaches they have themselves fearfully made in that hedge. (2.) Others shall think to shelter themselves, or at least their best effects, in the palace, because it is a castle well fortified and a garrison well manned: You shall throw yourselves (so some read it), or throw them (that is, your posterity, your children, or whatever is dear to you), into the palace, where the enemy will find it ready to be seized. Note, What is got by oppression cannot long be enjoyed with satisfaction.

_ _ 3. How their sentence to this punishment is ratified: The Lord God has sworn it by his holiness. He had often said it, and they regarded it not; they thought God and his prophets did but jest with them; therefore he swears it in his wrath, and what he has sworn he will not revoke. He swears by his holiness, that attribute of his which is so much his glory, and which is so much glorified in the punishment of wicked people; for, as sure as God is a holy God, those that plough iniquity and sow wickedness shall reap the same.

_ _ II. That obstinate idolaters shall be hardened in their idolatries (Amos 4:4, Amos 4:5): Come to Bethel, and transgress. It is spoken ironically: “Do so; take your course; multiply your transgressions by multiplying your sacrifices, for this liketh you; but what will you do in the end hereof?” Here we see, 1. How intent they were upon the service of their idols, and how willing they were to be at cost upon them; they brought their sacrifices, and their tithes, and their free-will offerings, hoping that therein they should be accepted of God, but it was all an abomination to him. The profuseness of idolaters in the service of their false gods may shame our strait-handedness in the service of the true and living God. 2. How they mimicked God's institutions. They had their daily sacrifice at the altar of Bethel, as God had at his altar; they had their thank-offerings as God had, only they allowed leaven in them, which God had forbidden, because their priests did not like to have the bread to heavy and tasteless as it would be if it had not leaven in it, for something to ferment it. Holy bread would not serve them, unless it were pleasant bread. 3. How well pleased they were with these services themselves: This liketh you, O you children of Israel! So you love. What was their own invention they were fond of and wedded to, and thought it must be pleasing to God because it was agreeable to their own fancy. 4. How they upbraided with it: “Come to Bethel, to Gilgal; bring the sacrifices and tithes yourselves; proclaim and publish to the nation the free-offerings, pressing them to bring in abundance of such; go on in this way;” that is, (1.) “It is plain that you are resolved to do it, whatever God and conscience say to the contrary.” (2.) “Your prophets shall let you alone in it, and not admonish you as they have done, for it is to no purpose. Let no man strive nor rebuke his neighbour.” (3.) “Your foolish hearts shall be more and more darkened and besotted, and you shall be quite given up to these strong delusions, to believe a lie.” (4.) “What will you get by it? Come to Bethel and multiply your sacrifices, and see what the better you will be, what returns you will have to your sacrifices, what stead they will stand you in in the day of distress. You shall be ashamed of Bethel your confidence,Jeremiah 48:13. (5.) “Come, and transgress, come, and multiply your transgression, that you may fill up the measure of your iniquity and be ripened for ruin.” Thus Christ said to Judas, What thou doest do quickly; and to the Jews, Fill you up the measure of your fathers, Matthew 23:32.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Amos 4:1

Kine of Bashan — So Amos compares the mighty, wanton, and oppressive rulers of Israel, to those full — fed, strong, and wanton beasts which in the herds did push at, hurt, and disturb the weaker cattle.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Amos 4:1

Hear this word, ye (a) kine of Bashan, that [are] in the mountain of Samaria, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, which say to their masters, (b) Bring, and let us drink.

(a) Thus he calls the princes and governors, who being overwhelmed with the great abundance of God's benefits, forgot God, and therefore he calls them by the name of beasts and not of men.

(b) They encourage those who have authority over the people to oppress them, so that they may have profit by it.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
ye kine:
By the "kine of Bashan," some understand the proud, luxurious matrons of Israel; but it is probable the prophet speaks catachrestically, and means the wealthy, effeminate, and profligate rulers and nobles of Samaria.
Deuteronomy 32:14-15 Butter of kine, and milk of sheep, with fat of lambs, and rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape. ... But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked: thou art waxen fat, thou art grown thick, thou art covered [with fatness]; then he forsook God [which] made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation.
Psalms 22:12 Many bulls have compassed me: strong [bulls] of Bashan have beset me round.
Jeremiah 50:11 Because ye were glad, because ye rejoiced, O ye destroyers of mine heritage, because ye are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls;
Jeremiah 50:27 Slay all her bullocks; let them go down to the slaughter: woe unto them! for their day is come, the time of their visitation.
Ezekiel 39:18 Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, of lambs, and of goats, of bullocks, all of them fatlings of Bashan.

the mountain:

Amos 6:1 Woe to them [that are] at ease in Zion, and trust in the mountain of Samaria, [which are] named chief of the nations, to whom the house of Israel came!
1 Kings 16:24 And he bought the hill Samaria of Shemer for two talents of silver, and built on the hill, and called the name of the city which he built, after the name of Shemer, owner of the hill, Samaria.

which oppress:

Amos 2:6-7 Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn away [the punishment] thereof; because they sold the righteous for silver, and the poor for a pair of shoes; ... That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek: and a man and his father will go in unto the [same] maid, to profane my holy name:
Amos 3:9-10 Publish in the palaces at Ashdod, and in the palaces in the land of Egypt, and say, Assemble yourselves upon the mountains of Samaria, and behold the great tumults in the midst thereof, and the oppressed in the midst thereof. ... For they know not to do right, saith the LORD, who store up violence and robbery in their palaces.
Amos 5:11 Forasmuch therefore as your treading [is] upon the poor, and ye take from him burdens of wheat: ye have built houses of hewn stone, but ye shall not dwell in them; ye have planted pleasant vineyards, but ye shall not drink wine of them.
Amos 8:4-6 Hear this, O ye that swallow up the needy, even to make the poor of the land to fail, ... That we may buy the poor for silver, and the needy for a pair of shoes; [yea], and sell the refuse of the wheat?
Exodus 22:21-25 Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. ... If thou lend money to [any of] my people [that is] poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.
Deuteronomy 15:9-11 Beware that there be not a thought in thy wicked heart, saying, The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and thine eye be evil against thy poor brother, and thou givest him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin unto thee. ... For the poor shall never cease out of the land: therefore I command thee, saying, Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land.
Psalms 12:5 For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, saith the LORD; I will set [him] in safety [from him that] puffeth at him.
Psalms 140:12 I know that the LORD will maintain the cause of the afflicted, [and] the right of the poor.
Proverbs 22:22-23 Rob not the poor, because he [is] poor: neither oppress the afflicted in the gate: ... For the LORD will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those that spoiled them.
Proverbs 23:10-11 Remove not the old landmark; and enter not into the fields of the fatherless: ... For their redeemer [is] mighty; he shall plead their cause with thee.
Ecclesiastes 4:1 So I returned, and considered all the oppressions that are done under the sun: and behold the tears of [such as were] oppressed, and they had no comforter; and on the side of their oppressors [there was] power; but they had no comforter.
Ecclesiastes 5:8 If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter: for [he that is] higher than the highest regardeth; and [there be] higher than they.
Isaiah 1:17-24 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. ... Therefore saith the Lord, the LORD of hosts, the mighty One of Israel, Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies:
Isaiah 5:8 Woe unto them that join house to house, [that] lay field to field, till [there be] no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth!
Isaiah 58:6 [Is] not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?
Jeremiah 5:26-29 For among my people are found wicked [men]: they lay wait, as he that setteth snares; they set a trap, they catch men. ... Shall I not visit for these [things]? saith the LORD: shall not my soul be avenged on such a nation as this?
Jeremiah 6:6 For thus hath the LORD of hosts said, Hew ye down trees, and cast a mount against Jerusalem: this [is] the city to be visited; she [is] wholly oppression in the midst of her.
Jeremiah 7:6 [If] ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt:
Ezekiel 22:7 In thee have they set light by father and mother: in the midst of thee have they dealt by oppression with the stranger: in thee have they vexed the fatherless and the widow.
Ezekiel 22:12 In thee have they taken gifts to shed blood; thou hast taken usury and increase, and thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbours by extortion, and hast forgotten me, saith the Lord GOD.
Ezekiel 22:27 Her princes in the midst thereof [are] like wolves ravening the prey, to shed blood, [and] to destroy souls, to get dishonest gain.
Ezekiel 22:29 The people of the land have used oppression, and exercised robbery, and have vexed the poor and needy: yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrongfully.
Micah 2:1-3 Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand. ... Therefore thus saith the LORD; Behold, against this family do I devise an evil, from which ye shall not remove your necks; neither shall ye go haughtily: for this time [is] evil.
Micah 3:1-3 And I said, Hear, I pray you, O heads of Jacob, and ye princes of the house of Israel; [Is it] not for you to know judgment? ... Who also eat the flesh of my people, and flay their skin from off them; and they break their bones, and chop them in pieces, as for the pot, and as flesh within the caldron.
Zechariah 7:10-11 And oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, the stranger, nor the poor; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart. ... But they refused to hearken, and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear.
Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in [his] wages, the widow, and the fatherless, and that turn aside the stranger [from his right], and fear not me, saith the LORD of hosts.
James 5:1-6 Go to now, [ye] rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon [you]. ... Ye have condemned [and] killed the just; [and] he doth not resist you.

crush:

Deuteronomy 28:33 The fruit of thy land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest not eat up; and thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed alway:
Job 20:19 Because he hath oppressed [and] hath forsaken the poor; [because] he hath violently taken away an house which he builded not;
*marg.
Jeremiah 51:34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out.

Bring:

Amos 2:8 And they lay [themselves] down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar, and they drink the wine of the condemned [in] the house of their god.
Joel 3:3 And they have cast lots for my people; and have given a boy for an harlot, and sold a girl for wine, that they might drink.
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Ex 22:21. Dt 15:9; 28:33; 32:14. 1K 16:24. Jb 20:19. Ps 12:5; 22:12; 140:12. Pv 22:22; 23:10. Ec 4:1; 5:8. Is 1:17; 5:8; 58:6. Jr 5:26; 6:6; 7:6; 50:11, 27; 51:34. Ezk 22:7, 12, 27, 29; 39:18. Jol 3:3. Am 2:6, 8; 3:9; 5:11; 6:1; 8:4. Mi 2:1; 3:1. Zc 7:10. Mal 3:5. Jm 5:1.

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