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Deuteronomy 13:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and he give thee a sign or a wonder,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— If there shall arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and give thee a sign or a wonder.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— If there arise among you a prophet, or one that dreameth dreams, and he give thee a sign or a wonder,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— When there shall arise in thy midst—a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams,—and he shall give unto thee a sign or a wonder;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'When there ariseth in your midst a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, and he hath given unto thee a sign or wonder,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— If there rise in the midst of thee a prophet or one that saith he hath dreamed a dream, and he foretell a sign and a wonder,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreames, and giueth thee a signe, or a wonder:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if there arise within thee a prophet, or one who dreams a dream, and he gives thee a sign or a wonder,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
If x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
there arise 6965
{6965} Prime
קוּם
quwm
{koom}
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
among 7130
{7130} Prime
קֶרֶב
qereb
{keh'-reb}
From H7126; properly the nearest part, that is, the centre, whether literally, figuratively or adverbially (especially with preposition).
you a prophet, 5030
{5030} Prime
נָבִיא
nabiy'
{naw-bee'}
From H5012; a prophet or (generally) inspired man.
or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
a dreamer 2492
{2492} Prime
חָלַם
chalam
{khaw-lam'}
A primitive root; properly to bind firmly, that is, (by implication) to be (causatively to make) plump; also (through the figurative sense of dumbness) to dream.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
of dreams, 2472
{2472} Prime
חֲלוֹם
chalowm
{khal-ome'}
From H2492; a dream.
and giveth 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
thee a sign 226
{0226} Prime
אוֹת
'owth
{oth}
Probably from H0225 (in the sense of appearing); a signal (literally or figuratively), as a flag, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence, etc.
or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
a wonder, 4159
{4159} Prime
מוֹפֶת
mowpheth
{mo-faith'}
From H3302 in the sense of conspicuousness; a miracle; by implication a token or omen.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Deuteronomy 13:1

_ _ Deuteronomy 13:1-5. Enticers to idolatry to be put to death.

_ _ If there arise among you a prophet — The special counsels which follow arose out of the general precept contained in Deuteronomy 12:32; and the purport of them is, that every attempt to seduce others from the course of duty which that divine standard of faith and worship prescribes must not only be strenuously resisted, but the seducer punished by the law of the land. This is exemplified in three cases of enticement to idolatry.

_ _ a prophet — that is, some notable person laying claim to the character and authority of the prophetic office (Numbers 12:6; 1 Samuel 10:6), performing feats of dexterity or power in support of his pretensions, or even predicting events which occurred as he foretold; as, for instance, an eclipse which a knowledge of natural science might enable him to anticipate (or, as Caiaphas, John 18:14). Should the aim of such a one be to seduce the people from the worship of the true God, he is an impostor and must be put to death. No prodigy, however wonderful, no human authority, however great, should be allowed to shake their belief in the divine character and truth of a religion so solemnly taught and so awfully attested (compare Galatians 1:8). The modern Jews appeal to this passage as justifying their rejection of Jesus Christ. But He possessed all the characteristics of a true prophet, and He was so far from alienating the people from God and His worship that the grand object of His ministry was to lead to a purer, more spiritual and perfect observance of the law.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Deuteronomy 13:1-5

_ _ Here is, I. A very strange supposition, Deuteronomy 13:1, Deuteronomy 13:2. 1. It is strange that there should arise any among themselves, especially any pretending to vision and prophecy, who should instigate them to go and serve other gods. Was it possible that any who had so much knowledge of the methods of divine revelation as to be able to personate a prophet should yet have so little knowledge of the divine nature and will as to go himself and entice his neighbours after other gods? Could an Israelite ever be guilty of such impiety? Could a man of sense ever be guilty of such absurdity? We see it in our own day, and therefore may think it the less strange; multitudes that profess both learning and religion yet exciting both themselves and others, not only to worship God by images, but to give divine honour to saints and angels, which is no better than going after other gods to serve them; such is the power of strong delusions. 2. It is yet more strange that the sign or wonder given for the confirmation of this false doctrine should come to pass. Can it be thought that God himself should give any countenance to such a vile proceeding? Did ever a false prophet work a true miracle? It is only supposed here for two reasons: — (1.) To strengthen the caution here given against hearkening to such a one. “Though it were possible that he should work a true miracle, yet you must not believe him if he tell you that you must serve other gods, for the divine law against that is certainly perpetual and unalterable.” The supposition is like that in Galatians 1:8, If we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you — which does not prove it possible that an angel should preach another gospel, but strongly expresses the certainty and perpetuity of that which we have received. So here, (2.) It is to fortify them against the danger of impostures and lying wonders (2 Thessalonians 2:9): “Suppose the credentials he produces be so artfully counterfeited that you cannot discern the cheat, nor disprove them, yet, if they are intended to draw you to the service of other gods, that alone is sufficient to disprove them; no evidence can be admitted against so clear a truth as that of the unity of the Godhead, and so plain a law as that of worshipping the one only living and true God.” We cannot suppose that the God of truth should set his seal of miracles to a lie, to so gross a lie as is supposed in that temptation, Let us go after other gods. But if it be asked, Why is this false prophet permitted to counterfeit this broad seal? It is answered here (Deuteronomy 13:3): “The Lord you God proveth you. He suffers you to be set upon by such a temptation to try your constancy, that both those that are perfect and those that are false and corrupt may be made manifest. It is to prove you; therefore see that you acquit yourselves well in the trial, and stand your ground.”

_ _ II. Here is a very necessary charge given in this case,

_ _ 1. Not to yield to the temptation: “Thou shalt not hearken to the worlds of that prophet, Deuteronomy 13:3. Not only thou shalt not do the thing he tempts thee to, but thou shalt not so much as patiently hear the temptation, but reject it with the utmost disdain and detestation. Such a suggestion as this is not to be so much as parleyed with, but the ear must be stopped against it. Get thee behind me, Satan.” Some temptations are so grossly vile that they will not bear a debate, nor may we so much as give them the hearing. What follows (Deuteronomy 13:4), You shall walk after the Lord, may be looked upon, (1.) As prescribing a preservative from the temptation: “Keep close to your duty, and you keep out of harm's way. God never leaves us till we leave him.” Or, (2.) As furnishing us with an answer to the temptation; say, “It is written, Thou shalt walk after the Lord, and cleave unto him; and therefore what have I to do with idols?”

_ _ 2. Not to spare the tempter, Deuteronomy 13:5. That prophet shall be put to death, both to punish him for the attempt he has made (the seducer must die, though none were seduced by him — a design upon the crown is treason) and to prevent his doing further mischief. This is called putting away the evil. There is no way of removing the guilt but by removing the guilty; if such a criminal be not punished, those that should punish him make themselves responsible. And thus the mischief must be put away; the infection must be kept from spreading by cutting off the gangrened limb, and putting away the mischief-makers. such Dangerous diseases as these must be taken in time.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Deuteronomy 13:1

A dreamer of dreams — One that pretends God hath revealed himself to him by visions or dreams. Giveth a sign or wonder — That is, shall foretell some strange and wonderful thing.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Deuteronomy 13:1

If there arise among you a prophet, or a dreamer of (a) dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder,

(a) Who says that he has things revealed to him in dreams.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a prophet:
That is, one pretending to the divine inspiration and authority of the prophetic office, or a dreamer of dreams, one who pretends that some deity has spoken to him in the night season, and giveth thee a sign, oth, what appears to be a miraculous proof of his mission, or a wonder, mopheth, some portentous sign, such as an eclipse, which he, who knew when it would happen, might predict to the people, who knew nothing of the matter, and thereby accredit his pretensions. But no pretended miracles must be admitted as a proof that the people might violate the first and great commandment.
1 Kings 13:18 He said unto him, I [am] a prophet also as thou [art]; and an angel spake unto me by the word of the LORD, saying, Bring him back with thee into thine house, that he may eat bread and drink water. [But] he lied unto him.
Isaiah 9:15 The ancient and honourable, he [is] the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he [is] the tail.
Jeremiah 6:13 For from the least of them even unto the greatest of them every one [is] given to covetousness; and from the prophet even unto the priest every one dealeth falsely.
Jeremiah 23:11 For both prophet and priest are profane; yea, in my house have I found their wickedness, saith the LORD.
Ezekiel 13:2-3 Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel that prophesy, and say thou unto them that prophesy out of their own hearts, Hear ye the word of the LORD; ... Thus saith the Lord GOD; Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing!
Ezekiel 13:23 Therefore ye shall see no more vanity, nor divine divinations: for I will deliver my people out of your hand: and ye shall know that I [am] the LORD.
Zechariah 13:4 And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the prophets shall be ashamed every one of his vision, when he hath prophesied; neither shall they wear a rough garment to deceive:
Matthew 7:15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.
Matthew 24:11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.
Luke 6:26 Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers to the false prophets.
2 Peter 2:1 But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction.
1 John 4:1 Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

a dreamer:

Jeremiah 23:25-28 I have heard what the prophets said, that prophesy lies in my name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. ... The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that hath my word, let him speak my word faithfully. What [is] the chaff to the wheat? saith the LORD.
Jeremiah 27:9 Therefore hearken not ye to your prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreamers, nor to your enchanters, nor to your sorcerers, which speak unto you, saying, Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon:
Jeremiah 29:8 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Let not your prophets and your diviners, that [be] in the midst of you, deceive you, neither hearken to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed.
Jeremiah 29:24 [Thus] shalt thou also speak to Shemaiah the Nehelamite, saying,
*marg.
Zechariah 10:2 For the idols have spoken vanity, and the diviners have seen a lie, and have told false dreams; they comfort in vain: therefore they went their way as a flock, they were troubled, because [there was] no shepherd.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

1K 13:18. Is 9:15. Jr 6:13; 23:11, 25; 27:9; 29:8, 24. Ezk 13:2, 23. Zc 10:2; 13:4. Mt 7:15; 24:11. Lk 6:26. 2P 2:1. 1Jn 4:1.

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