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Exodus 1:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the Egyptians made the children of Israel serve with harshness;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And the Egyptians rigorously made the sons of Israel serve;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and the Egyptians cause the sons of Israel to serve with rigour,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Egyptians hated the children of Israel, and afflicted them and mocked them:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serue with rigour.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Mizraimites{gr.Egyptians} tyrannised over the children of Israel by force.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And the Mitzrim made the children of Yisrael to serve with rigour:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And the Mixrm מִצרִים 4714
{4714} Prime
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
made y5647
[5647] Standard
A primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the children 1121
{1121} Prime
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
to serve 5647
{5647} Prime
A primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
with rigour: 6531
{6531} Prime
From an unused root meaning to break apart; fracture, that is, severity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 1:13-14

_ _ The Egyptians ... made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick — Ruins of great brick buildings are found in all parts of Egypt. The use of crude brick, baked in the sun, was universal in upper and lower Egypt, both for public and private buildings; all but the temples themselves were of crude brick. It is worthy of remark that more bricks bearing the name of Thothmes III, who is supposed to have been the king of Egypt at the time of the Exodus, have been discovered than of any other period [Wilkinson]. Parties of these brickmakers are seen depicted on the ancient monuments with “taskmasters,” some standing, others in a sitting posture beside the laborers, with their uplifted sticks in their hands.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Exodus 1:8-14.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

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Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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