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Exodus 1:14 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field, all their service, wherein they made them serve with rigor.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, [was] with rigour.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar and bricks and at all [kinds] of labor in the field, all their labors which they rigorously imposed on them.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service in which they made them serve, [was] with rigor.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— and they embittered their life with hard labour in clay and bricks, and in all manner of labour in the field: all their labour with which they made them serve was with harshness.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— and embittered their lives with harsh service, in clay and in bricks, and in all manner of service in the field,—all their service, wherein they rigorously made them serve.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and make their lives bitter in hard service, in clay, and in brick, and in every [kind] of service in the field; all their service in which they have served [is] with rigour.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And they made their life bitter with hard works in clay and brick, and with all manner of service, wherewith they were overcharged in the works of the earth.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And they made their liues bitter, with hard bondage, in morter and in bricke, and in all maner of seruice in the fielde: all their seruice wherein they made them serue, [was] with rigour.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And they embittered their life by hard labours, in the clay and in brick-making, and all the works in the plains, according to all the works, wherein they caused them to serve with violence.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, [was] with rigour.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And they made y4843
[4843] Standard
מָרַר
marar
{maw-rar'}
A primitive root; properly to trickle (see H4752); but used only as a denominative from H4751; to be (causatively make) bitter (literally or figuratively).
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
their lives 2416
{2416} Prime
חַי
chay
{khah'-ee}
From H2421; alive; hence raw (flesh); fresh (plant, water, year), strong; also (as noun, especially in the feminine singular and masculine plural) life (or living thing), whether literally or figuratively.
bitter 4843
{4843} Prime
מָרַר
marar
{maw-rar'}
A primitive root; properly to trickle (see H4752); but used only as a denominative from H4751; to be (causatively make) bitter (literally or figuratively).
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
with hard 7186
{7186} Prime
קָשֶׁה
qasheh
{kaw-sheh'}
From H7185; severe (in various applications).
bondage, 5656
{5656} Prime
עֲבֹדָה
`abodah
{ab-o-daw'}
From H5647; work of any kind.
in morter, 2563
{2563} Prime
חֹמֶר
chomer
{kho'-mer}
From H2560; properly a bubbling up, that is, of water, a wave; of earth, mire or clay (cement); also a heap; hence a chomer or dry measure.
and in brick, 3843
{3843} Prime
לְבֵנָה
l@benah
{leb-ay-naw'}
From H3835; a brick (from the whiteness of the clay).
and in all manner x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
of service 5656
{5656} Prime
עֲבֹדָה
`abodah
{ab-o-daw'}
From H5647; work of any kind.
in the field: 7704
{7704} Prime
שָׂדֶה
sadeh
{saw-deh'}
From an unused root meaning to spread out; a field (as flat).
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
their service, 5656
{5656} Prime
עֲבֹדָה
`abodah
{ab-o-daw'}
From H5647; work of any kind.
wherein x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
they made them serve, 5647
{5647} Prime
עָבַד
`abad
{aw-bad'}
A primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
[was] with rigour. 6531
{6531} Prime
פֶּרֶךְ
perek
{peh'-rek}
From an unused root meaning to break apart; fracture, that is, severity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Exodus 1:13-14.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Exodus 1:8-14.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
their lives:

Exodus 2:23 And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.
Exodus 6:9 And Moses spake so unto the children of Israel: but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.
Genesis 15:13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land [that is] not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;
Numbers 20:15 How our fathers went down into Egypt, and we have dwelt in Egypt a long time; and the Egyptians vexed us, and our fathers:
Deuteronomy 4:20 But the LORD hath taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, [even] out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance, as [ye are] this day.
Deuteronomy 26:6 And the Egyptians evil entreated us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage:
Ruth 1:20 And she said unto them, Call me not Naomi, call me Mara: for the Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me.
Acts 7:19 The same dealt subtilly with our kindred, and evil entreated our fathers, so that they cast out their young children, to the end they might not live.
Acts 7:34 I have seen, I have seen the affliction of my people which is in Egypt, and I have heard their groaning, and am come down to deliver them. And now come, I will send thee into Egypt.

in mortar:

Psalms 68:13 Though ye have lien among the pots, [yet shall ye be as] the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold.
Psalms 81:6 I removed his shoulder from the burden: his hands were delivered from the pots.
Nahum 3:14 Draw thee waters for the siege, fortify thy strong holds: go into clay, and tread the morter, make strong the brickkiln.

was with rigour:

Exodus 1:13 And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour:
Exodus 5:7-21 Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves. ... And they said unto them, The LORD look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.
Exodus 20:2 I [am] the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
Leviticus 25:43 Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God.
Leviticus 25:46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit [them for] a possession; they shall be your bondmen for ever: but over your brethren the children of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another with rigour.
Leviticus 25:53 [And] as a yearly hired servant shall he be with him: [and the other] shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight.
Isaiah 14:6 He who smote the people in wrath with a continual stroke, he that ruled the nations in anger, is persecuted, [and] none hindereth.
Isaiah 51:23 But I will put it into the hand of them that afflict thee; which have said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over: and thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as the street, to them that went over.
Isaiah 52:5 Now therefore, what have I here, saith the LORD, that my people is taken away for nought? they that rule over them make them to howl, saith the LORD; and my name continually every day [is] blasphemed.
Isaiah 58:6 [Is] not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?
Jeremiah 50:33-34 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The children of Israel and the children of Judah [were] oppressed together: and all that took them captives held them fast; they refused to let them go. ... Their Redeemer [is] strong; the LORD of hosts [is] his name: he shall throughly plead their cause, that he may give rest to the land, and disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon.
Micah 3:3 Who also eat the flesh of my people, and flay their skin from off them; and they break their bones, and chop them in pieces, as for the pot, and as flesh within the caldron.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 15:13. Ex 1:13; 2:23; 5:7; 6:9; 20:2. Lv 25:43, 46, 53. Nu 20:15. Dt 4:20; 26:6. Ru 1:20. Ps 68:13; 81:6. Is 14:6; 51:23; 52:5; 58:6. Jr 50:33. Mi 3:3. Na 3:14. Ac 7:19, 34.

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