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Exodus 1:15 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one [was] Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other was named Puah;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives (of which the name of one [was] Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:)
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives—of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other was Puah—
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then said the king of Egypt to the Hebrew midwives,—of whom, the name of the one was, Shiphrah, and, the name of the other, Puah;—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the king of Egypt speaketh to the midwives, the Hebrewesses, (of whom the name of the one [is] Shiphrah, and the name of the second Puah),
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the king of Egypt spoke to the midwives of the Hebrews: of whom one was called Sephora, the other Phua,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the King of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwiues, (of which the name of one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah.)
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the king of the Mizraimites{gr.Egyptians} spoke to the midwives of the Hebrews; the name of the one was, Zipporah{gr.Sepphora}; and the name of the second, Puah{gr.Phua}.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And the king of Mitzrayim spake to the Ivri midwives, of which the name of the one [was] Shifrah, and the name of the other Puah:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And the king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Mixrayim מִצרַיִם 4714
{4714} Prime
מִצְרַיִם
Mitsrayim
{mits-rah'-yim}
Dual of H4693; Mitsrajim, that is, Upper and Lower Egypt.
spake 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to the `Ivr עִברִי 5680
{5680} Prime
עִבְרִי
`Ibriy
{ib-ree'}
Patronymic from H5677; an Eberite (that is, Hebrew) or descendant of Eber.
midwives, 3205
{3205} Prime
יָלַד
yalad
{yaw-lad'}
A primitive root; to bear young; causatively to beget; medically to act as midwife; specifically to show lineage.
z8764
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
of which x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
the name 8034
{8034} Prime
שֵׁם
shem
{shame}
A primitive word (perhaps rather from H7760 through the idea of definite and conspicuous position; compare H8064); an appellation, as a mark or memorial of individuality; by implication honor, authority, character.
of the one 259
{0259} Prime
אֶחָד
'echad
{ekh-awd'}
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
[was] ifr שִׁפרָה, 8236
{8236} Prime
שִׁפְרָה
Shiphrah
{shif-raw'}
The same as H8235; Shiphrah, an Israelitess.
and the name 8034
{8034} Prime
שֵׁם
shem
{shame}
A primitive word (perhaps rather from H7760 through the idea of definite and conspicuous position; compare H8064); an appellation, as a mark or memorial of individuality; by implication honor, authority, character.
of the other 8145
{8145} Prime
שֵׁנִי
sheniy
{shay-nee'}
From H8138; properly double, that is, second; also adverbially again.
P` פּוּעָה: 6326
{6326} Prime
פּוּעָה
Puw`ah
{poo-aw'}
From an unused root meaning to glitter; brilliancy; Puah, an Israelitess.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 1:15

_ _ the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives — Two only were spoken to — either they were the heads of a large corporation [Laborde], or, by tampering with these two, the king designed to terrify the rest into secret compliance with his wishes [Calvin].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 1:15-22

_ _ The Egyptians' indignation at Israel's increase, notwithstanding the many hardships they put upon them, drove them at length to the most barbarous and inhuman methods of suppressing them, by the murder of their children. It was strange that they did not rather pick quarrels with the grown men, against whom they might perhaps find some occasion: to be thus bloody towards the infants, whom all must own to be innocents, was a sin which they had to cloak for. Note, 1. There is more cruelty in the corrupt heart of man than one would imagine, Romans 3:15, Romans 3:16. The enmity that is in the seed of the serpent against the seed of the woman divests men of humanity itself, and makes them forget all pity. One would not think it possible that ever men should be so barbarous and blood-thirsty as the persecutors of God's people have been, Revelation 17:6. 2. Even confessed innocence is no defence against the old enmity. What blood so guiltless as that of a child new-born? Yet that is prodigally shed like water, and sucked with delight like milk or honey. Pharaoh and Herod sufficiently proved themselves agents for that great red dragon, who stood to devour the man-child as soon as it was born, Revelation 12:3, Revelation 12:4. Pilate delivered Christ to be crucified, after he had confessed that he found no fault in him. It is well for us that, though man can kill the body, this is all he can do. Two bloody edicts are here signed for the destruction of all the male children that were born to the Hebrews.

_ _ I. The midwives were commanded to murder them. Observe, 1. The orders given them, Exodus 1:15, Exodus 1:16. It added much to the barbarity of the intended executions that the midwives were appointed to be the executioners; for it was to make them, not only bloody, but perfidious, and to oblige them to betray a trust, and to destroy those whom they undertook to save and help. Could he think that their sex would admit such cruelty, and their employment such base treachery? Note, Those who are themselves barbarous think to find, or make, others as barbarous. Pharaoh's project was secretly to engage the midwives to stifle the men-children as soon as they were born, and then to lay it upon the difficulty of the birth, or some mischance common in that case, Job 3:11. The two midwives he tampered with in order hereunto are here named; and perhaps, at this time, which was above eighty years before their going out of Egypt, those two might suffice for all the Hebrew women, at least so many of them as lay near the court, as it is plain by Exodus 2:5, Exodus 2:6, many of them did, and of them he was most jealous. They are called Hebrew midwives, probably not because they were themselves Hebrews (for surely Pharaoh could never expect they should be so barbarous to those of their own nation), but because they were generally made use of by the Hebrews; and, being Egyptians, he hoped to prevail with them. 2. Their pious disobedience to this impious command, Exodus 1:17. They feared God, regarded his law, and dreaded his wrath more than Pharaoh's and therefore saved the men-children alive. Note, If men's commands be any way contrary to the commands of God, we must obey God and not man, Acts 4:19; Acts 5:29. No power on earth can warrant us, much less oblige us, to sin against God, our chief Lord. Again, Where the fear of God rules in the heart, it will preserve it from the snare which the inordinate fear of man brings. 3. Their justifying themselves in this disobedience, when they were charged with it as a crime, Exodus 1:18. They gave a reason for it, which, it seems, God's gracious promise furnished them with — that they came too late to do it, for generally the children were born before they came, Exodus 1:19. I see no reason we have to doubt the truth of this; it is plain that the Hebrews were now under an extraordinary blessing of increase, which may well be supposed to have this effect, that the women had very quick and easy labour, and, the mothers and children being both lively, they seldom needed the help of midwives: this these midwives took notice of, and, concluding it to the finger of God, were thereby emboldened to disobey the king, in favour of those whom Heaven thus favoured, and with this justified themselves before Pharaoh, when he called them to an account for it. Some of the ancient Jews expound it thus, Ere the midwife comes to them they pray to their Father in heaven, and he answereth them, and they do bring forth. Note, God is a readier help to his people in distress than any other helpers are, and often anticipates them with the blessings of his goodness; such deliverances lay them under peculiarly strong obligations. 4. The recompence God gave them for their tenderness towards his people: He dealt well with them, Exodus 1:20. Note, God will be behind-hand with none for any kindness done to his people, taking it as done to himself. In particular, he made them houses (Exodus 1:21), built them up into families, blessed their children, and prospered them in all they did. Note, The services done for God's Israel are often repaid in kind. The midwives kept up the Israelites' houses, and, in recompence for it, God made them houses. Observe, The recompence has relation to the principle upon which they went: Because they feared God, he made them houses. Note, Religion and piety are good friends to outward prosperity: the fear of God in a house will help to build it up and establish it. Dr. Lightfoot's notion of it is, That, for their piety, they were married to Israelites, and Hebrew families were built up by them.

_ _ II. When this project did not take effect, Pharaoh gave public orders to all his people to drown all the male children of the Hebrews, Exodus 1:22. We may suppose it was made highly penal for any to know of the birth of a son to an Israelite, and not to give information to those who were appointed to throw him into the river. Note, The enemies of the church have been restless in their endeavours to wear out the saints of the Most High, Daniel 7:25. But he that sits in heaven shall laugh at them. See Psalms 2:4.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 1:15

And the king spake to the Hebrew midwives — The two chief of them. They are called Hebrew midwives, probably not because they were themselves Hebrews; for sure Pharaoh could never expect they should be so barbarous to those of their own nation, but because they were generally made use of by the Hebrews, and being Egyptians he hoped to prevail with them.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Exodus 1:15

And the king of Egypt spake to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one [was] (f) Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah:

(f) These seem to have been the main of the rest.

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