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Exodus 15:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto Jehovah, and spake, saying, I will sing unto Jehovah, for he hath triumphed gloriously: The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then Moses and the sons of Israel sang this song to the LORD, and said, “I will sing to the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and its rider He has hurled into the sea.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song to the LORD, and spoke, saying, I will sing to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song to Jehovah, and spoke, saying, I will sing unto Jehovah, for he is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then, sang Moses, and the sons of Israel, this song unto Yahweh, and they spake, saying,—I will sing to Yahweh, for he is exalted, exalted,—The horse and his rider, hath he cast into the sea.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Then singeth Moses and the sons of Israel this song to Jehovah, and they speak, saying:—'I sing to Jehovah, For triumphing He hath triumphed; The horse and its rider He hath thrown into the sea.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Then Moses and the children of Israel sung this canticle to the Lord, and said: Let us sing to the Lord: for he is gloriously magnified, the horse and the rider he hath thrown into the sea.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song vnto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing vnto the LORD: for he hath triumphed gloriously, the horse and his rider hath he throwen into the Sea.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Then sang Mosheh{gr.Moses} and the children of Israel this song to God, and spoke, saying, Let us sing to the Lord, for he is very greatly glorified: horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then sang Mosheh and the children of Yisrael this song unto Yahweh, and spake, saying, I will sing unto Yahweh, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then x227
(0227) Complement
אָז
'az
{awz}
A demonstrative adverb; at that time or place; also as a conjugation, therefore.
sang 7891
{7891} Prime
שִׁיר
shiyr
{sheer}
The second form being the original form, used in (1 Samuel 18:6); a primitive root (rather identical with H7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy); to sing.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
M מֹשֶׁה 4872
{4872} Prime
מֹשֶׁה
Mosheh
{mo-sheh'}
From H4871; drawing out (of the water), that is, rescued; Mosheh, the Israelitish lawgiver.
and the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
this x2063
(2063) Complement
זֹאת
zo'th
{zothe'}
Irregular feminine of H2089; this (often used adverbially).
song 7892
{7892} Prime
שִׁיר
shiyr
{sheer}
The second form being feminine; from H7891; a song; abstractly singing.
unto Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
and spake, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
saying, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
I will sing 7891
{7891} Prime
שִׁיר
shiyr
{sheer}
The second form being the original form, used in (1 Samuel 18:6); a primitive root (rather identical with H7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy); to sing.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
he hath triumphed y1342
[1342] Standard
גּאה
ga'ah
{gaw-aw'}
A primitive root; to mount up; hence in general to rise, (figuratively) be majestic.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
gloriously: 1342
{1342} Prime
גּאה
ga'ah
{gaw-aw'}
A primitive root; to mount up; hence in general to rise, (figuratively) be majestic.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
the horse 5483
{5483} Prime
סוּס
cuwc
{soos}
From an unused root meaning to skip (properly for joy); a horse (as leaping); also a swallow (from its rapid flight).
and his rider 7392
{7392} Prime
רָכַב
rakab
{raw-kab'}
A primitive root; to ride (on an animal or in a vehicle); causatively to place upon (for riding or generally), to despatch.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
hath he thrown 7411
{7411} Prime
רָמָה
ramah
{raw-maw'}
A primitive root; to hurl; specifically to shoot; figuratively to delude or betray (as if causing to fall).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
into the sea. 3220
{3220} Prime
יָם
yam
{yawm}
From an unused root meaning to roar; a sea (as breaking in noisy surf) or large body of water; specifically (with the article) the Mediterranean; sometimes a large river, or an artificial basin; locally, the west, or (rarely) the south.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 15:1

_ _ Exodus 15:1-27. Song of Moses.

_ _ Then sang Moses and the children of Israel — The scene of this thanksgiving song is supposed to have been at the landing place on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, at Ayoun Musa, “the fountains of Moses.” They are situated somewhat farther northward along the shore than the opposite point from which the Israelites set out. But the line of the people would be extended during the passage, and one extremity of it would reach as far north as these fountains, which would supply them with water on landing. The time when it was sung is supposed to have been the morning after the passage. This song is, by some hundred years, the oldest poem in the world. There is a sublimity and beauty in the language that is unexampled. But its unrivalled superiority arises not solely from the splendor of the diction. Its poetical excellencies have often drawn forth the admiration of the best judges, while the character of the event commemorated, and its being prompted by divine inspiration, contribute to give it an interest and sublimity peculiar to itself.

_ _ I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously — Considering the state of servitude in which they had been born and bred, and the rude features of character which their subsequent history often displays, it cannot be supposed that the children of Israel generally were qualified to commit to memory or to appreciate the beauties of this inimitable song. But they might perfectly understand its pervading strain of sentiment; and, with the view of suitably improving the occasion, it was thought necessary that all, old and young, should join their united voices in the rehearsal of its words. As every individual had cause, so every individual gave utterance to his feelings of gratitude.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 15:1-21

_ _ Having read how that complete victory of Israel over the Egyptians was obtained, here we are told how it was celebrated; those that were to hold their peace while the deliverance was in working (Exodus 14:14) must not hold their peace now that it was wrought; the less they had to do then the more they had to do now. If God accomplishes deliverance by his own immediate power, it redounds so much the more to his glory. Moses, no doubt by divine inspiration, indited this song, and delivered it to the children of Israel, to be sung before they stirred from the place where they saw the Egyptians dead upon the shore. Observe, 1. They expressed their joy in God, and thankfulness to him, by singing; it is almost natural to us thus to give vent to our joy and the exultations of our spirit. By this instance it appears that the singing of psalms, as an act of religious worship, was used in the church of Christ before the giving of the ceremonial law, and therefore was no part of it, nor abolished with it. Singing is as much the language of holy joy as praying is of holy desire. 2. Moses, who had gone before them through the sea, goes before them in the song, and composes it for them. Note, Those that are active in public services should not be neuters in public praises. 3. When the mercy was fresh, and they were much affected with it, then they sang this song. Note, When we have received special mercy from God, we ought to be quick and speedy in our returns of praise to him, before time and the deceitfulness of our own hearts efface the good impressions that have been made. David sang his triumphant song in the day that the Lord delivered him, 2 Samuel 22:1. Bis dat qui cito datHe gives twice who gives quickly. 4. When they believed the Lord (Exodus 14:31) then they sang this song: it was a song of faith; this connection is observed (Psalms 106:12): Then believed they his words, they sang his praise. If with the heart man believes, thus confession must be made. Here is,

_ _ I. The song itself; and,

_ _ 1. We may observe respecting this song, that it is, (1.) An ancient song, the most ancient that we know of. (2.) A most admirable composition, the style lofty and magnificent, the images lively and proper, and the whole very moving. (3.) It is a holy song, consecrated to the honour of God, and intended to exalt his name and celebrate his praise, and his only, not in the least to magnify any man: holiness to the Lord is engraven in it, and to him they made melody in the singing of it. (4.) It is a typical song. The triumphs of the gospel church, in the downfall of its enemies, are expressed in the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb put together, which are said to be sung upon a sea of glass, as this was upon the Red Sea, Revelation 15:2, Revelation 15:3.

_ _ 2. Let us observe what Moses chiefly aims at in this song.

_ _ (1.) He gives glory to God, and triumphs in him; this is first in his intention (Exodus 15:1): I will sing unto the Lord. Note, All our joy must terminate in God, and all our praises be offered up to him, the Father of lights and Father of mercies, for he hath triumphed. Note, All that love God triumph in his triumphs; what is his honour should be our joy. Israel rejoiced in God, [1.] As their own God, and therefore their strength, song, and salvation, Exodus 15:2. Happy therefore the people whose God is the Lord; they need no more to make them happy. They have work to do, temptations to grapple with, and afflictions to bear, and are weak in themselves; but he strengthens them: his grace is their strength. They are often in sorrow, upon many accounts, but in him they have comfort, he is their song; sin, and death, and hell, threaten them, but he is, and will be, their salvation: See Isaiah 12:2. [2.] As their fathers' God. This they take notice of, because, being conscious to themselves of their own unworthiness and provocations, they had reason to think that what God had now done for them was for their fathers' sake, Deuteronomy 4:37. Note, The children of the covenant ought to improve their fathers' relation to God as their God for comfort, for caution, and for quickening. [3.] As a God of infinite power (Exodus 15:3): The Lord is a man of war, that is, well able to deal with all those that strive with their Maker, and will certainly be too hard for them. [4.] As a God of matchless and incomparable perfection, Exodus 15:11. This is expressed, First, More generally: Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods! This is pure praise, and a high expression of humble adoration. — It is a challenge to all other gods to compare with him: “Let them stand forth, and pretend their utmost; none of them dare make the comparison.” Egypt was notorious for the multitude of its gods, but the God of the Hebrews was too hard for them and baffled them all, Numbers 33:4; Deu. 32:23-39. The princes and potentates of the world are called gods, but they are feeble and mortal, none of them all comparable to Jehovah, the almighty and eternal God. — It is confession of his infinite perfection, as transcendent and unparalleled. Note, God is to be worshipped and adored as a being of such infinite perfection that there is none like him, nor any to be compared with him, as one that in all things has and must have the pre-eminence, Psalms 89:6. Secondly, More particularly, 1. He is glorious in holiness; his holiness is his glory. It is that attribute which angels adore, Isaiah 6:3. His holiness appeared in the destruction of Pharaoh, his hatred of sin, and his wrath against obstinate sinners. It appeared in the deliverance of Israel, his delight in the holy seed, and his faithfulness to his own promise. God is rich in mercy — this is his treasure, glorious in holiness — this is his honour. Let us always give thanks at the remembrance of his holiness. 2. He is fearful in praises. That which is the matter of our praise, though it is joyful to the servants of God, is dreadful and very terrible to his enemies, Psalms 66:1-3. Or it directs us in the manner of our praising God; we should praise him with a humble holy awe, and serve the Lord with fear. Even our spiritual joy and triumph must be balanced with a religious fear. 3. He is doing wonders, wondrous to all, being above the power and out of the common course of nature; especially wondrous to us, in whose favour they are wrought, who are so unworthy that we had little reason to expect them. They were wonders of power and wonders of grace; in both God was to be humbly adored.

_ _ (2.) He describes the deliverance they were now triumphing in, because the song was intended, not only to express and excite their thankfulness for the present, but to preserve and perpetuate the remembrance of this work of wonder to after-ages. Two things were to be taken notice of: —

_ _ [1.] The destruction of the enemy; the waters were divided, Exodus 15:8. The floods stood upright as a heap. Pharaoh and all his hosts were buried in the waters. The horse and his rider could not escape (Exodus 15:1), the chariots, and the chosen captains (Exodus 15:4); they themselves went into the sea, and they were overwhelmed, Exodus 15:19. The depths, the sea, covered them, and the proud waters went over the proud sinners; they sank like a stone, like lead (Exodus 15:5, Exodus 15:10), under the weight of their own guilt and God's wrath. Their sin had made them hard like a stone, and now they justly sink like a stone. Nay, the earth itself swallowed them (Exodus 15:12); their dead bodies sank into the sands upon which they were thrown up, which sucked them in. Those whom the Creator fights against the whole creation is at war with. All this was the Lord's doing, and his only. It was an act of his power: Thy right hand, O Lord, not ours, has dashed in pieces the enemy, Exodus 15:6. It was with the blast of thy nostrils (Exodus 15:8), and thy wind (Exodus 15:10), and the stretching out of thy right hand, Exodus 15:12. It was an instance of his transcendent power — in the greatness of thy excellency; and it was the execution of his justice: Thou sentest forth thy wrath, Exodus 15:7. This destruction of the Egyptians was made the more remarkable by their pride and insolence, and their strange assurance of success: The enemy said, I will pursue, Exodus 15:9. Here is, First, Great confidence. When they pursue, they do not question but they shall overtake; and, when they overtake, they do not question but they shall overcome, and obtain so decisive a victory as to divide the spoil. Note, It is common for men to be most elevated with the hope of success when they are upon the brink of ruin, which makes their ruin so much the sorer. See Isaiah 37:24, Isaiah 37:25. Secondly, Great cruelty — nothing but killing, and slaying, and destroying, and this will satisfy his lust; and a barbarous lust that is which so much blood must be the satisfaction of. Note, It is a cruel hatred with which the church is hated; its enemies are bloody men. This is taken notice of here to show, 1. That God resists the proud, and delights to humble those who lift up themselves; he that says, “I will, and I will, whether God will or no,” shall be made to know that wherein he deals proudly God is above him. 2. That those who thirst for blood shall have enough of it. Those who love to be destroying shall be destroyed; for we know who has said, Vengeance is mine, I will repay.

_ _ [2.] The protection and guidance of Israel (Exodus 15:13): Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people, led them forth out of the bondage Egypt, led them forth out of the perils of the Red Sea, Exodus 15:19. But the children of Israel went on dry land. Note, The destruction of the wicked serves for a foil to set off the salvation of Israel, and to make it the more illustrious, Isaiah 45:13-15.

_ _ (3.) He sets himself to improve this wonderful appearance of God for them. [1.] In order to quicken them to serve God: in consideration of this, I will prepare him habitation, Exodus 15:2. God having preserved them, and prepared a covert for them under which they had been safe and easy, they resolve to spare no cost nor pains for the erecting of a tabernacle to his honour, and there they will exalt him, and mention, to his praise, the honour he had got upon Pharaoh. God had now exalted them, making them great and high, and therefore they will exalt him, by speaking of his infinite height and grandeur. Note, Our constant endeavour should be, by praising his name and serving his interests, to exalt God; and it is an advancement to us to be so employed. [2.] In order to encourage them to trust in God. So confident is this Psalmist of the happy issue of the salvation which was so gloriously begun that he looks upon it as in effect finished already: “Thou hast guided them to thy holy habitation, Exodus 15:13. Thou hast thus put them into the way to it, and wilt in due time bring them to the end of that way,” for God's work is perfect; or, “Thou hast guided them to attend thy holy habitation in heaven with their praises.” Note, Those whom God takes under his direction he will guide to his holy habitation in faith now, and in fruition shortly. Two ways this great deliverance was encouraging: — First, It was such an instance of God's power as would terrify their enemies, and quite dishearten them, Exodus 15:14-16. The very report of the overthrow of the Egyptians would be more than half the over throw of all their other enemies; it would sink their spirits, which would go far towards the sinking of their powers and interests; he Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, and Canaanites (with each of which nations Israel was to grapple), would be alarmed by it, would be quite dispirited, and would conclude it was in vain to fight against Israel, when a God of such power fought for them. It had this effect; the Edomites were afraid of them (Deuteronomy 2:4), so were the Moabites (Numbers 22:3), and the Canaanites, Joshua 2:9, Joshua 2:10; Joshua 5:1. Thus God sent his fear before them (Exodus 23:27), and cut off the spirit of princes. Secondly, It was such a beginning of God's favour to them as gave them an earnest of he perfection of his kindness. This was but in order to something further: Thou shalt bring them in, Exodus 15:17. If he thus bring them out of Egypt, notwithstanding their unworthiness, and the difficulties that lay in the way of their escape, doubtless he will bring them into Canaan; for has he begun (so begun), and will he not make an end? Note, Our experiences of God's power and favour should be improved for the support of our expectations. “Thou hast, therefore, not only thou canst, but we trust thou wilt,” is good arguing. Thou wilt plant them in the place which thou has made for thee to dwell in. Note, It is good dwelling where God dwells, in his church on earth (Psalms 27:4), in his church in heaven, John 17:24. Where he says, “This is my rest for ever,” we should say, “Let it be ours.” Lastly, The great ground of the encouragement which they draw from this work of wonder is, The Lord shall reign for ever and ever, Exodus 15:18. They had now seen an end of Pharaoh's reign; but time itself shall not put a period to Jehovah's reign, which, like himself, is eternal, and not subject to change. Note, It is the unspeakable comfort of all God's faithful subjects, not only that he does reign universally and with an incontestable sovereignty, but that he will reign eternally, and there shall be no end of his dominion.

_ _ II. The solemn singing of this song, Exodus 15:20, Exodus 15:21. Miriam (or Mary, it is the same name) presided in an assembly of the women, who (according to the softness of their sex, and the common usage of those times for expressing joy, with timbrels and dances) sang this song. Moses led the psalm, and gave it out for the men, and then Miriam for the women. Famous victories were wont to be applauded by the daughters of Israel (1 Samuel 18:6, 1 Samuel 18:7); so was this. When God brought Israel out of Egypt, it is said (Micah 6:4), He sent before them Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, though we read not of any thing memorable that Miriam did but this. But those are to be reckoned great blessings to a people who assist them, and go before them, in praising God.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 15:1

Then sang Moses — Moses composed this song, and sang it with the children of Israel. Doubtless he wrote it by inspiration, and sang it on the spot. By this instance it appears that the singing of psalms, as an act of religious worship, was used in the church of Christ before the giving of the ceremonial law, therefore it is no part of it, nor abolished with it: singing is as much the language of holy joy, as praying is of holy desire. I will sing unto the Lord — All our joy must terminate in God, and all our praises be offered up to him, for he hath triumphed — All that love God triumph in his triumphs.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Exodus 15:1

Then (a) sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.

(a) Praising God for the overthrow of his enemies, and their deliverance.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Then:

Judges 5:1-31 Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, saying, ... So let all thine enemies perish, O LORD: but [let] them that love him [be] as the sun when he goeth forth in his might. And the land had rest forty years.
2 Samuel 22:1-51 And David spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day [that] the LORD had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul: ... [He is] the tower of salvation for his king: and sheweth mercy to his anointed, unto David, and to his seed for evermore.
Psalms 106:12 Then believed they his words; they sang his praise.
Psalms 107:8 Oh that [men] would praise the LORD [for] his goodness, and [for] his wonderful works to the children of men!
Psalms 107:15 Oh that [men] would praise the LORD [for] his goodness, and [for] his wonderful works to the children of men!
Psalms 107:21-22 Oh that [men] would praise the LORD [for] his goodness, and [for] his wonderful works to the children of men! ... And let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare his works with rejoicing.
Isaiah 12:1-6 And in that day thou shalt say, O LORD, I will praise thee: though thou wast angry with me, thine anger is turned away, and thou comfortedst me. ... Cry out and shout, thou inhabitant of Zion: for great [is] the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.
Isaiah 51:10-11 [Art] thou not it which hath dried the sea, the waters of the great deep; that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over? ... Therefore the redeemed of the LORD shall return, and come with singing unto Zion; and everlasting joy [shall be] upon their head: they shall obtain gladness and joy; [and] sorrow and mourning shall flee away.
Revelation 15:3 And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous [are] thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true [are] thy ways, thou King of saints.

for:

Exodus 15:21 And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
Exodus 14:17-18 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. ... And the Egyptians shall know that I [am] the LORD, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.
Exodus 14:27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
Exodus 18:11 Now I know that the LORD [is] greater than all gods: for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly [he was] above them.
Colossians 2:15 [And] having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 14:17, 27; 15:21; 18:11. Jg 5:1. 2S 22:1. Ps 106:12; 107:8, 15, 21. Is 12:1; 51:10. Col 2:15. Rv 15:3.

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