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Exodus 16:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass at even, that the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the camp.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So it came about at evening that the quails came up and covered the camp, and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass, that at evening the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay around the host.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass in the evening, that quails came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning the dew lay round the camp.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, in the evening, that there came up quail, and covered the camp,—and in the morning was the outpouring of dew, round about the camp;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass in the evening, that the quail cometh up, and covereth the camp, and in the morning there hath been the lying of dew round about the camp,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— So it came to pass in the evening, that quails coming up, covered the camp: and in the morning a dew lay round about the camp.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe, that at euen the Quailes came vp, and couered the campe: and in the morning the dew lay round about the hoste.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it was evening, and quails came up and covered the camp:
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass, that at even the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the host.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass, x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
that at even 6153
{6153} Prime
עֶרֶב
`ereb
{eh'-reb}
From H6150; dusk.
the quails 7958
{7958} Prime
שְׂלָו
s@lav
{sel-awv'}
By orthographical variation from H7951 through the idea of sluggishness; the quail collectively (as slow in flight from its weight).
came up, 5927
{5927} Prime
עָלָה
`alah
{aw-law'}
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and covered 3680
{3680} Prime
כָּסָה
kacah
{kaw-saw'}
A primitive root; properly to plump, that is, fill up hollows; by implication to cover (for clothing or secrecy).
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the camp: 4264
{4264} Prime
מַחֲנֶה
machaneh
{makh-an-eh'}
From H2583; an encampment (of travellers or troops); hence an army, whether literally (of soldiers) or figuratively (of dancers, angels, cattle, locusts, stars; or even the sacred courts).
and in the morning 1242
{1242} Prime
בֹּקֶר
boqer
{bo'-ker}
From H1239; properly dawn (as the break of day); generally morning.
the dew 2919
{2919} Prime
טַל
tal
{tal}
From H2926; dew (as covering vegetation).
lay 7902
{7902} Prime
שְׁכָבָה
sh@kabah
{shek-aw-baw'}
From H7901; a lying down (of dew, or for the sexual act).
x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
round about 5439
{5439} Prime
סָבִיב
cabiyb
{saw-beeb'}
From H5437; (as noun) a circle, neighbor, or environs; but chiefly (as adverb, with or without preposition) around.
the host. 4264
{4264} Prime
מַחֲנֶה
machaneh
{makh-an-eh'}
From H2583; an encampment (of travellers or troops); hence an army, whether literally (of soldiers) or figuratively (of dancers, angels, cattle, locusts, stars; or even the sacred courts).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 16:13-31

_ _ at even the quails came up, and covered the camp — This bird is of the gallinaceous kind [that is, relating to the order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial birds], resembling the red partridge, but not larger than the turtledove. They are found in certain seasons in the places through which the Israelites passed, being migratory birds, and they were probably brought to the camp by “a wind from the Lord” as on another occasion (Numbers 11:31).

_ _ and in the morning ... a small round thing ... manna — There is a gum of the same name distilled in this desert region from the tamarisk, which is much prized by the natives, and preserved carefully by those who gather it. It is collected early in the morning, melts under the heat of the sun, and is congealed by the cold of night. In taste it is as sweet as honey, and has been supposed by distinguished travellers, from its whitish color, time, and place of its appearance, to be the manna on which the Israelites were fed: so that, according to the views of some, it was a production indigenous to the desert; according to others, there was a miracle, which consisted, however, only in the preternatural arrangements regarding its supply. But more recent and accurate examination has proved this gum of the tarfa-tree to be wanting in all the principal characteristics of the Scripture manna. It exudes only in small quantities, and not every year; it does not admit of being baked (Numbers 11:8) or boiled (Exodus 16:23). Though it may be exhaled by the heat and afterwards fall with the dew, it is a medicine, not food — it is well known to the natives of the desert, while the Israelites were strangers to theirs; and in taste as well as in the appearance of double quantity on Friday, none on Sabbath, and in not breeding worms, it is essentially different from the manna furnished to the Israelites.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 16:13-21

_ _ Now they begin to be provided for by the immediate hand of God.

_ _ I. He makes them a feast, at night, of delicate fowl, feathered fowl (Psalms 78:27), therefore not locusts, as some think; quails, or pheasants, or some wild fowl, came up, and covered the camp, so tame that they might take up as many of them as they pleased. Note, God gives us of the good things of this life, not only for necessity, but for delight, that we may not only serve him, but serve him cheerfully.

_ _ II. Next morning he rained manna upon them, which was to be continued to them for their daily bread. 1. That which was provided for them was manna, which descended from the clouds, so that, in some sense, they might be said to live upon the air. It came down in dew that melted, and yet was itself of such a consistency as to serve for nourishing strengthening food, without any thing else. They called it manna, manhu, “What is this?” Either, “What a poor thing this is!” despising it: or, “What a strange thing this is!” admiring it: or, “It is a portion, no matter what it is; it is that which our God has allotted us, and we will take it and be thankful,” Exodus 16:14, Exodus 16:15. It was pleasant food; the Jews say that it was palatable to all, however varied their tastes. It was wholesome food, light of digestion, and very necessary (Dr. Grew says) to cleanse them from disorders with which he thinks it probable that they were, in the time of their bondage, more or less infected, which disorders a luxurious diet would have made contagious. By this spare and plain diet we are all taught a lesson of temperance, and forbidden to desire dainties and varieties. 2. They were to gather it every morning (Exodus 16:21), the portion of a day in his day, Exodus 16:4. Thus they must live upon daily providence, as the fowls of the air, of which it is said, That which thou givest them they gather (Psalms 104:28); not today for tomorrow: let the morrow take thought for the things of itself. To this daily raining and gathering of manna our Saviour seems to allude when he teaches us to pray, Give us this day our daily bread. We are hereby taught, (1.) Prudence and diligence in providing food convenient for ourselves and our household. What God graciously gives we must industriously gather; with quietness working, and eating our own bread, not the bread either of idleness or deceit. God's bounty leaves room for man's duty; it did so even when manna was rained: they must not eat till they have gathered. (2.) Contentment and satisfaction with a sufficiency. They must gather, every man according to his eating; enough is as good as a feast, and more than enough is as bad as a surfeit. Those that have most have, for themselves, but food, and raiment, and mirth; and those that have least generally have these: so that he who gathers much has nothing over, and he who gathers little has no lack. There is not so great a disproportion between one and another in the comforts and enjoyments of the things of this life as there is in the property and possession of the things themselves. (3.) Dependence upon Providence: Let no man leave till morning (Exodus 16:19), but let them learn to go to bed and sleep quietly, though they have not a bit of bread in their tent, nor in all their camp, trusting that God, with the following day, will bring them their daily bread.” It was surer and safer in God's store-house than in their own, and would thence come to them sweeter and fresher. Read with this, Matthew 6:25, Take no thought for your life, etc. See here the folly of hoarding. The manna that was laid up by some (who thought themselves wiser and better managers than their neighbours, and who would provide in case it should fail next day), putrefied, and bred worms, and became good for nothing. Note, That proves to be most wasted which is covetously and distrustfully spared. Those riches are corrupted, James 5:2, James 5:3. Let us set ourselves to think, [1.] Of that great power of God which fed Israel in the wilderness, and made miracles their daily bread. What cannot this God do, who prepared a table in the wilderness, and furnished it richly even for those who questioned whether he could or no? Psalms 78:19, Psalms 78:20. Never was there such a market of provisions as this, where so many hundred thousand men were daily furnished, without money and without price. Never was there such an open house kept as God kept in the wilderness for forty years together, nor such free and plentiful entertainment given. The feast which Ahasuerus made, to show the riches of his kingdom, and the honour of his majesty, was nothing to this, Esther 1:4. It is said (Exodus 16:21), When the sun waxed hot, it melted; as if what was left were drawn up by the heat of the sun into the air to be the seed of the next day's harvest, and so from day to day. [2.] Of that constant providence of God which gives food to all flesh, for his mercy endures for ever, Psalms 136:25. He is a great house-keeper that provides for all the creatures. The same wisdom, power, and goodness that now brought food daily out of the clouds, are employed in the constant course of nature, bringing food yearly out of the earth, and giving us all things richly to enjoy.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 16:13

The quails came up, and covered the camp — So tame that they might take up as many of them as they pleased. Next morning he rained manna upon them, which was to be continued to them for their daily bread.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the quails:
The Latin selav, Chaldee selaiv, Syriac and Arabic selwa, is without doubt the quail, so the LXX render it ορτυγομητρα, a large kind of quail. Josephus, ορτυξ, Ethopic, ferferat, and Vulgate, coturnices, quails, with which agree Philo and the Rabbins. The quail is a bird of the gallinaceous kind, somewhat less than a pigeon, but larger than a sparrow. Hasselquist describes the quail of the larger kind as very much resembling the red partridge, but not larger than the turtle dove; found in Judea as well as in the deserts of Arabia Petrĉa and Egypt; and affording a most agreeable and delicate dish.
Numbers 11:31-33 And there went forth a wind from the LORD, and brought quails from the sea, and let [them] fall by the camp, as it were a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and as it were two cubits [high] upon the face of the earth. ... And while the flesh [was] yet between their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath of the LORD was kindled against the people, and the LORD smote the people with a very great plague.
Psalms 78:27-28 He rained flesh also upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea: ... And he let [it] fall in the midst of their camp, round about their habitations.
Psalms 105:40 [The people] asked, and he brought quails, and satisfied them with the bread of heaven.

the dew:

Numbers 11:9 And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it.
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Nu 11:9, 31. Ps 78:27; 105:40.

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