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Exodus 28:15 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the skilful workman; like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of] purple, and [of] scarlet, and [of] fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “You shall make a breastpiece of judgment, the work of a skillful workman; like the work of the ephod you shall make it: of gold, of blue and purple and scarlet [material] and fine twisted linen you shall make it.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And thou shalt make the breast-plate of judgment with curious work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of] purple, and [of] scarlet, and [of] fine twined linen shalt thou make it.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment of artistic work, like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined byssus shalt thou make it.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And thou shalt make a breastpiece for giving sentence, the work of a skilful weaver, like the work of the ephod, shalt thou make it, of gold, blue, and purple, and crimson, and fine-twined linen, shalt thou make it.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And thou hast made a breastplate of judgment, work of a designer; according to the work of the ephod thou dost make it; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and twined linen thou dost make it;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And thou shalt make the rational of judgment with embroidered work of divers colours, according to the workmanship of the ephod, of gold, violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And thou shalt make the brestplate of Iudgement, with cunning worke, after the worke of the Ephod thou shalt make it: of gold, of blew, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linnen shalt thou make it.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And thou shalt make the oracle of judgment, the work of the embroiderer: in keeping with the ephod, thou shalt make it of gold, and blue and purple, and spun scarlet, and fine linen spun.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of] purple, and [of] scarlet, and [of] fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And thou shalt make 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the breastplate 2833
{2833} Prime
חֹשֶׁן
choshen
{kho'-shen}
From an unused root probably meaning to contain or sparkle; perhaps a pocket (as holding the Urim and Thummim), or rich (as containing gems), used only of the gorget of the highpriest.
of judgment 4941
{4941} Prime
מִשְׁפָּט
mishpat
{mish-pawt'}
From H8199; properly a verdict (favorable or unfavorable) pronounced judicially, especially a sentence or formal decree (human or (particularly) divine law, individual or collectively), including the act, the place, the suit, the crime, and the penalty; abstractly justice, including a particular right, or privilege (statutory or customary), or even a style.
with cunning 2803
{2803} Prime
חָשַׁב
chashab
{khaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to plait or interpenetrate, that is, (literally) to weave or (generally) to fabricate; figuratively to plot or contrive (usually in a malicious sense); hence (from the mental effort) to think, regard, value, compute.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
work; 4639
{4639} Prime
מַעֲשֶׂה
ma`aseh
{mah-as-eh'}
From H6213; an action (good or bad); generally a transaction; abstractly activity; by implication a product (specifically a poem) or (generally) property.
after the work 4639
{4639} Prime
מַעֲשֶׂה
ma`aseh
{mah-as-eh'}
From H6213; an action (good or bad); generally a transaction; abstractly activity; by implication a product (specifically a poem) or (generally) property.
of the ephod 646
{0646} Prime
אֵפוֹד
'ephowd
{ay-fode'}
Second form is a rare form; probably of foreign derivation; a girdle; specifically the ephod or high priest's shoulder piece; also generally an image.
thou shalt make 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
it; [of] gold, 2091
{2091} Prime
זָהָב
zahab
{zaw-hawb'}
From an unused root meaning to shimmer; gold; figuratively something gold colored (that is, yellow), as oil, a clear sky.
[of] blue, 8504
{8504} Prime
תְּכֵלֶת
t@keleth
{tek-ay'-leth}
Probably for H7827; the cerulean mussel, that is, the color (violet) obtained therefrom or stuff dyed therewith.
and [of] purple, 713
{0713} Prime
אַרְגָּמָן
'argaman
{ar-gaw-mawn'}
Of foreign origin; purple (the color or the dyed stuff).
and [of] scarlet, 8144
{8144} Prime
שָׁנִי
shaniy
{shaw-nee'}
Of uncertain derivation; crimson, properly the insect or its color, also stuff dyed with it.
8438
{8438} Prime
תּוֹלָע
towla`
{to-law'}
From H3216; a maggot (as voracious); specifically (often with ellipsis of H8144) the crimson grub, but used only (in this connection) of the color from it, and cloths dyed therewith.
and [of] fine twined y7806
[7806] Standard
שָׁזַר
shazar
{shaw-zar'}
A primitive root; to twist (a thread of straw).
z8716
<8716> Grammar
Stem - Hophal (See H8825)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 113
linen, 8336
{8336} Prime
שֵׁשׁ
shesh
{shaysh}
(The second form for alliteration with H4897); for H7893; bleached stuff, that is, white linen or (by analogy) marble.
x7806
(7806) Complement
שָׁזַר
shazar
{shaw-zar'}
A primitive root; to twist (a thread of straw).
shalt thou make 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
it.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 28:15-29

_ _ thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work — a very splendid and richly embroidered piece of brocade, a span square, and doubled, to enable it the better to bear the weight of the precious stones in it. There were twelve different stones, containing each the name of a tribe, and arranged in four rows, three in each. The Israelites had acquired a knowledge of the lapidary’s art in Egypt, and the amount of their skill in cutting, polishing, and setting precious stones, may be judged of by the diamond forming one of the engraved ornaments on this breastplate. A ring was attached to each corner, through which the golden chains were passed to fasten this brilliant piece of jewelry at the top and bottom tightly on the breast of the ephod.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 28:15-30

_ _ The most considerable of the ornaments of the high priest was this breast-plate, a rich piece of cloth, curiously wrought with gold and purple, etc., two spans long and a span broad, so that, being doubled, it was a span square, Exodus 28:16. This was fastened to the ephod with wreathen chains of gold (Exodus 28:13, Exodus 28:14, Exodus 28:22, etc.) both at top and bottom, so that the breast-plate might not be loosed from the ephod, Exodus 28:28. The ephod was the garment of service; the breast-plate of judgment was an emblem of honour: these two must by no means be separated. If any man will minister unto the Lord, and do his will, he shall know his doctrine. In this breast-plate,

_ _ I. The tribes of Israel were recommended to God's favour in twelve precious stones, Exodus 28:17-21, Exodus 28:19. Some question whether Levi had a precious stone with his name or no. If not, Ephraim and Manasseh were reckoned distinct, as Jacob had said they should be, and the high priest himself, being head of the tribe of Levi, sufficiently represented that tribe. If there was a stone for Levi, as is intimated by this, that they were engraven according to their birth (Exodus 28:10), Ephraim and Manasseh were one in Joseph. Aaron was to bear their names for a memorial before the Lord continually, being ordained for men, to represent them in things pertaining to God, herein typifying our great high priest, who always appears in the presence of God for us. 1. Though the people were forbidden to come near, and obliged to keep their distance, yet by the high priest, who had their names on his breast-plate, they entered into the holiest; so believers, even while they are here on this earth, not only enter into the holiest, but by faith are made to sit with Christ in heavenly places, Ephesians 2:6. 2. The name of each tribe was engraven in a precious stone, to signify how precious, in God's sight, believers are, and how honourable, Isaiah 43:4. They shall be his in the day he makes up his jewels, Malachi 3:17. How small and poor soever the tribe was, it was a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest; thus are all the saints dear to Christ, and his delight is in them as the excellent ones of the earth, however men may esteem them as earthen pitchers, Lamentations 4:2. 3. The high priest had the names of the tribes both on his shoulders and on his breast, intimating both the power and the love with which our Lord Jesus intercedes for those that are his. He not only bears them up upon his heart, as the expression here is (Exodus 28:29), carries them in his bosom (Isaiah 40:11), with the most tender affection. How near should Christ's name be to our hearts, since he is pleased to lay our names so near his! and what a comfort it is to us, in all our addresses to God, that the great high priest of our profession has the names of all his Israel upon his breast before the Lord for a memorial, presenting them to God as the people of his choice, who were to be made accepted in the beloved! Let not any good Christians fear that God has forgotten them, nor question his being mindful of them upon all occasions, when they are not only engraven upon the palms of his hands (Isaiah 49:16), but engraven upon the heart of the great intercessor. See Song of Songs 8:6.

_ _ II. The urim and thummim, by which the will of God was made known in doubtful cases, were put in this breast-plate, which is therefore called the breast-plate of judgment, Exodus 28:30. Urim and thummim signify light and integrity; many conjectures there are among the learned what they were; we have no reason to think they were any thing that Moses was to make more than what was before ordered, so that either God made them himself, and gave them to Moses, for him to put into the breast-plate, when other things were prepared (Leviticus 8:8), or no more is meant than a declaration of the further use of what was already ordered to be made. I think the words may be read thus, And thou shalt give, or add, or deliver, to the breast-plate of judgment, the illuminations and perfections, and they shall be upon the heart of Aaron; that is, “He shall be endued with a power of knowing and making known the mind of God in all difficult doubtful cases, relating either to the civil or ecclesiastical state of the nation.” Their government was a theocracy: God was their King, the high priest was, under God, their ruler, the urim and thummim were his cabinet-council; probably Moses wrote upon the breast-plate, or wove into it, these words, Urim and Thummim, to signify that the high priest, having on him this breast-plate, and asking counsel of God in any emergency relating to the public, should be directed to take those measures, and give that advice, which God would own. If he was standing before the ark (but without the veil) probably he received instructions from off the mercy-seat, as Moses did (Exodus 25:22); thus, it should seem, Phinehas did, Judges 20:27, Judges 20:28. If he was at a distance from the ark, as Abiathar was when he enquired of the Lord for David (1 Samuel 23:6, etc.), then the answer was given either by a voice from heaven or rather by an impulse upon the mind of the high priest, which last is perhaps intimated in that expression, He shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart. This oracle was of great use to Israel; Joshua consulted it (Numbers 27:21), and, it is likely, the judges after him. It was lost in the captivity, and never regained after, though, it should seem, it was expected, Ezra 2:63. But it was a shadow of good things to come, and the substance is Christ. He is our oracle; by him God in these last days makes known himself and his mind to us, Hebrews 1:2; John 1:18. Divine revelation centres in him, and comes to us through him; he is the light, the true light, the faithful witness, the truth itself, and from him we receive the Spirit of truth, who leads into all truth. The joining of the breast-plate to the ephod denotes that his prophetical office was founded in his priesthood; and it was by the merit of his death that he purchased this honour for himself and this favour for us. It was the Lamb that had been slain that was worthy to take the book and to open the seals, Revelation 5:9.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Exodus 28:15

The most considerable of the ornaments of the high priest was this breast — plate, a rich piece of cloth curiously wrought with gold and purple, two spans long, and a span broad; so that, being doubled, it was a span square. In this breast — plate, the tribes of Israel were recommended to God's favour in twelve precious stones. Some question whether Levi had a precious stone with his name on or no; if not Ephraim and Manasseh were reckoned distinct, as Jacob had said they should be, and the high priest himself being head of the tribe of Levi, sufficiently represented that tribe. Aaron was to bear their names for a memorial before the Lord continually, being ordained for men, to represent them in things pertaining to God; herein typifying our great High Priest, who always appears in the presence of God for us. The name of each tribe was engraven in a precious stone, to signify how precious, in God's sight, believers are, and how honourable, Isaiah 43:4. The high priest had the names of the tribes both on his shoulders and on his breast, noting both the power and the love with which our Lord Jesus interceeds for us. How near should Christ's name lie to our hearts, since he is pleased to lay our names so near his? And what a comfort is it to us, in all our addresses to God, that the great High Priest of our profession has the names of all his Israel upon his breast, before the Lord, for a memorial, presenting them to God?

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Exodus 28:15

And thou shalt make the breastplate of (h) judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of] purple, and [of] scarlet, and [of] fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.

(h) It was so called, because the high priest could not give sentence in judgment without that on his breast.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the breastplate:

Exodus 28:4 And these [are] the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office.
Exodus 28:30 And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.
Exodus 39:8 And he made the breastplate [of] cunning work, like the work of the ephod; [of] gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
Leviticus 8:8 And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.

after:

Exodus 28:6 And they shall make the ephod [of] gold, [of] blue, and [of] purple, [of] scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.
Exodus 26:1 Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle [with] ten curtains [of] fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: [with] cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them.
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Ex 26:1; 28:4, 6, 30; 39:8. Lv 8:8.

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