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Exodus 7:14 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Jehovah said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart is stubborn, he refuseth to let the people go.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh's heart [is] hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is stubborn; he refuses to let the people go.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the LORD said to Moses, Pharaoh's heart [is] hardened; he refuseth to let the people go.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Jehovah said to Moses, Pharaoh's heart is hardened: he refuseth to let the people go.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then said Yahweh unto Moses, Dull, is the heart of Pharaoh,—he hath refused to let the people go.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Jehovah saith unto Moses, 'The heart of Pharaoh hath been hard, he hath refused to send the people away;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Lord said to Moses: Pharao's heart is hardened, he will not let the people go.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the LORD saide vnto Moses, Pharaohs heart is hardened: he refuseth to let the people goe.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Lord said to Mosheh{gr.Moses}, The heart of Pharaoh{gr.Pharao} is made hard, so that he should not let the people go.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Yahweh said unto Mosheh, Paroh's heart [is] hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
said 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
M מֹשֶׁה, 4872
{4872} Prime
מֹשֶׁה
Mosheh
{mo-sheh'}
From H4871; drawing out (of the water), that is, rescued; Mosheh, the Israelitish lawgiver.
Par`'s פַּרעֹה 6547
{6547} Prime
פַּרְעֹה
Par`oh
{par-o'}
Of Egyptian derivation; Paroh, a generic title of Egyptian kings.
heart 3820
{3820} Prime
לֵב
leb
{labe}
A form of H3824; the heart; also used (figuratively) very widely for the feelings, the will and even the intellect; likewise for the centre of anything.
[is] hardened, 3515
{3515} Prime
כָּבֵד
kabed
{kaw-bade'}
From H3513; heavy; figuratively in a good sense (numerous) or in a bad sense (severe, difficult, stupid).
he refuseth 3985
{3985} Prime
מָאֵן
ma'en
{maw-ane'}
A primitive root; to refuse.
z8765
<8765> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2121
to let the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
go. 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Exodus 7:14

_ _ Pharaoh’s heart is hardened — Whatever might have been his first impressions, they were soon dispelled; and when he found his magicians making similar attempts, he concluded that Aaron’s affair was a magical deception, the secret of which was not known to his wise men.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Exodus 7:14-25

_ _ Here is the first of the ten plagues, the turning of the water into blood, which was, 1. A dreadful plague, and very grievous. The very sight of such vast rolling streams of blood, pure blood no doubt, florid and high-colored, could not but strike a horror upon people: much more afflictive were the consequences of it. Nothing more common than water: so wisely has Providence ordered it, and so kindly, that that which is so needful and serviceable to the comfort of human life should be cheap, and almost every where to be had; but now the Egyptians must either drink blood, or die for thirst. Fish was much of their food (Numbers 11:5), but the changing of the waters was the death of the fish; it was a pestilence in that element (Exodus 7:21): The fish died. In the general deluge they escaped, because perhaps they had not then contributed so much to the luxury of man as they have since; but in this particular judgment they perished (Psalms 105:29): He slew their fish; and when another destruction of Egypt, long afterwards, is threatened, the disappointment of those that make sluices and ponds for fish is particularly noticed, Isaiah 19:10. Egypt was a pleasant land, but the noisome stench of dead fish and blood, which by degrees would grow putrid, now rendered it very unpleasant. 2. It was a righteous plague, and justly inflicted upon the Egyptians. For, (1.) Nilus, the river of Egypt, was their idol; they and their land derived so much benefit from it that they served and worshipped it more than the Creator. The true fountain of the Nile being unknown to them, they paid all their devotions to its streams: here therefore God punished them, and turned that into blood which they had turned into a god. Note, That creature which we idolize God justly removes from us, or embitters to us. He makes that a scourge to us which we make a competitor with him. (2.) They had stained the river with the blood of the Hebrews' children, and now God made that river all bloody. Thus he gave them blood to drink, for they were worthy, Revelation 16:6. Note, Never any thirsted after blood, but, sooner or later, they had enough of it. 3. It was a significant plague. Egypt had a great dependence upon their river (Zechariah 14:18), so that in smiting the river they were warned of the destruction of all the productions of their country, till it came at last to their firstborn; and this red river proved a direful omen of the ruin of Pharaoh and all his forces in the Red Sea. This plague of Egypt is alluded to in the prediction of the ruin of the enemies of the New Testament church, Revelation 16:3, Revelation 16:4. But there the sea, as well as the rivers and fountains of water, is turned into blood; for spiritual judgments reach further, and strike deeper, than temporal judgments do. And, lastly, let me observe in general concerning this plague that one of the first miracles Moses wrought was turning water into blood, but one of the first miracles our Lord Jesus wrought was turning water into wine; for the law was given by Moses, and it was a dispensation of death and terror; but grace and truth, which, like wine, make glad the heart, came by Jesus Christ. Observe,

_ _ I. Moses is directed to give Pharaoh warning of this plague. “Pharaoh's heart is hardened (Exodus 7:14), therefore go and try what this will do to soften it,” Exodus 7:15. Moses perhaps may not be admitted into Pharaoh's presence-chamber, or the room of state where he used to give audience to ambassadors; and therefore he is directed to meet him by the river's brink, whither God foresaw he would come in the morning, either for the pleasure of a morning's walk or to pay his morning devotions to the river: for thus all people will walk, every one in the name of his god; they will not fail to worship their god every morning. There Moses must be ready to give him a new summons to surrender, and, in case of a refusal, to tell him of the judgment that was coming upon that very river on the banks of which they were now standing. Notice is thus given him of it beforehand, that they might have no colour to say it was a chance, or to attribute it to any other cause, but that it might appear to be done by the power of the God of the Hebrews, and as a punishment upon him for his obstinacy. Moses is expressly ordered to take the rod with him, that Pharaoh might be alarmed at the sight of that rod which had so lately triumphed over the rods of the magicians. Now learn hence, 1. That the judgments of God are all known to himself beforehand. He knows what he will do in wrath as well as in mercy. Every consumption is a consumption determined, Isaiah 10:23. 2. That men cannot escape the alarms of God's wrath, because they cannot go out of the hearing of their own consciences: he that made their hearts can make his sword to approach them. 3. That God warns before he wounds; for he is long-suffering, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.

_ _ II. Aaron (who carried the mace) is directed to summon the plague by smiting the river with his rod, Exodus 7:19, Exodus 7:20. It was done in the sight of Pharaoh and his attendants; for God's true miracles were not performed, as Satan's lying wonders were, by those that peeped and muttered: truth seeks no corners. An amazing change was immediately wrought; all the waters, not only in the rivers but in all their ponds, were turned into blood. 1. See here the almighty power of God. Every creature is that to us which he makes it to be, water or blood. 2. See the mutability of all things under the sun, and what changes we may meet with in them. That which is water today may be blood tomorrow; what is always vain may soon become vexatious. A river, at the best, is transient; but divine justice can quickly make it malignant. 3. See what mischievous work sin makes. if the things that have been our comforts prove our crosses, we must thank ourselves: it is sin that turns our waters into blood.

_ _ III. Pharaoh endeavours to confront the miracle, because he resolves not to humble himself under the plague. He sends for the magicians, and, by God's permission, they ape the miracle with their enchantments (Exodus 7:22), and this serves Pharaoh for an excuse not to set his heart to this also (Exodus 7:23), and a pitiful excuse it was. Could they have turned the river of blood into water again, this would have been something to the purpose; then they would have proved their power, and Pharaoh would have been obliged to them as his benefactors. But for them, when there was such scarcity of water, to turn more of it into blood, only to show their art, plainly intimates that the design of the devil is only to delude his devotees and amuse them, not to do them any real kindness, but to keep them from doing a real kindness to themselves by repenting and returning to their God.

_ _ IV. The Egyptians, in the mean time, are seeking for relief against the plague, digging round about the river for water to drink, Exodus 7:24. Probably they found some, with much ado, God remembering mercy in the midst of wrath; for he is full of compassion, and would not let the subjects smart too much for the obstinacy of their prince.

_ _ V. The plague continued seven days (Exodus 7:25), and, in all that time, Pharaoh's proud heart would not let him so much as desire Moses to intercede for the removal of it. Thus the hypocrites in heart heap up wrath; they cry not when he binds them (Job 36:13); and then no wonder that his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Pharaoh's:

Exodus 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
Exodus 10:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:
Exodus 10:20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go.
Exodus 10:27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.
Zechariah 7:12 Yea, they made their hearts [as] an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit by the former prophets: therefore came a great wrath from the LORD of hosts.

he refuseth:

Exodus 4:23 And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, [even] thy firstborn.
Exodus 8:2 And if thou refuse to let [them] go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs:
Exodus 9:2 For if thou refuse to let [them] go, and wilt hold them still,
Exodus 10:4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts into thy coast:
Isaiah 1:20 But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken [it].
Jeremiah 8:5 Why [then] is this people of Jerusalem slidden back by a perpetual backsliding? they hold fast deceit, they refuse to return.
Jeremiah 9:6 Thine habitation [is] in the midst of deceit; through deceit they refuse to know me, saith the LORD.
Hebrews 12:25 See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more [shall not] we [escape], if we turn away from him that [speaketh] from heaven:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 4:23; 8:2, 15; 9:2; 10:1, 4, 20, 27. Is 1:20. Jr 8:5; 9:6. Zc 7:12. He 12:25.

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