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Genesis 10:21 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And unto Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, to him also were children born.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were [children] born.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, [and] the older brother of Japheth, children were born.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were [children] born.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And to Shem—to him also were [sons] born; he is the father of all the sons of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, to Shem, father of all the sons of Eber, elder brother of Japheth, to him also, were children born.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— As to Shem, father of all sons of Eber, brother of Japheth the elder, he hath also begotten:
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Of Sem also the father of all the children of Heber, the elder brother of Japheth, sons were born.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Unto Shem also the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Iaphet the elder, euen to him were [children] borne.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And to Shem{gr.Sem} himself also were children born, the father of all the sons of Eber{gr.Heber}, the brother of Japheth the elder.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Ever, the brother of Yefeth the elder, even to him were [children] born.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Unto m שֵׁם 8035
{8035} Prime
שֵׁם
Shem
{shame}
The same as H8034; name; Shem, a son of Noah (often including his posterity).
also, the father 1
{0001} Prime
אָב
'ab
{awb}
A primitive word; father in a literal and immediate, or figurative and remote application.
of all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of `ver עֵבֶר, 5677
{5677} Prime
עֵבֶר
`Eber
{ay'-ber}
The same as H5676; Eber, the name of two patriarchs and four Israelites.
the brother 251
{0251} Prime
אָח
'ach
{awkh}
A primitive word; a brother (used in the widest sense of literal relationship and metaphorical affinity or resemblance (like H0001)).
of Yefe יֶפֶת 3315
{3315} Prime
יֶפֶת
Yepheth
{yeh'-feth}
From H6601; expansion; Jepheth, a son of Noah; also his posterity.
the elder, 1419
{1419} Prime
גָּדוֹל
gadowl
{gaw-dole'}
From H1431; great (in any sense); hence older; also insolent.
even x1571
(1571) Complement
גַּם
gam
{gam}
By contraction from an unused root meaning to gather; properly assemblage; used only adverbially also, even, yea, though; often repeated as correlation both... and.
to him x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
were [children] born. 3205
{3205} Prime
יָלַד
yalad
{yaw-lad'}
A primitive root; to bear young; causatively to beget; medically to act as midwife; specifically to show lineage.
z8795
<8795> Grammar
Stem - Pual (See H8849)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 199
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 10:21

_ _ Unto Shem — The historian introduces him with marked distinction as “the father of Eber,” the ancestor of the Hebrews.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 10:21-32

_ _ Two things especially are observable in this account of the posterity of Shem: —

_ _ I. The description of Shem, Genesis 10:21. We have not only his name, Shem, which signifies a name, but two titles to distinguish him by: —

_ _ 1. He was the father of all the children of Eber. Eber was his great grandson; but why should he be called the father of all his children, rather than of all Arphaxad's, or Salah's, etc.? Probably because Abraham and his seed, God's covenant-people, not only descended from Heber, but from him were called Hebrews; Genesis 14:13, Abram the Hebrew. Paul looked upon it as his privilege that he was a Hebrew of the Hebrews, Philippians 3:5. Eber himself, we may suppose, was a man eminent for religion in a time of general apostasy, and a great example of piety to his family; and, the holy tongue being commonly called from him the Hebrew, it is probable that he retained it in his family, in the confusion of Babel, as a special token of God's favour to him; and from him the professors of religion were called the children of Eber. Now, when the inspired penman would give Shem an honourable title, he calls him the father of the Hebrews. Though when Moses wrote this, they were a poor despised people, bond-slaves in Egypt, yet, being God's people, it was an honour to a man to be akin to them. As Ham, though he had many sons, is disowned by being called the father of Canaan, on whose seed the curse was entailed (Genesis 9:22), so Shem, though he had many sons, is dignified with the title of the father of Eber, on whose seed the blessing was entailed. Note, a family of saints is more truly honourable than a family of nobles, Shem's holy seed than Ham's royal seed, Jacob's twelve patriarchs than Ishmael's twelve princes, Genesis 17:20. Goodness is true greatness.

_ _ 2. He was the brother of Japheth the elder, by which it appears that, though Shem is commonly put first, he was not Noah's first-born, but Japheth was older. But why should this also be put as part of Shem's title and description, that he was the brother of Japheth, since it had been, in effect, said often before? And was he not as much brother to Ham? Probably this was intended to signify the union of the Gentiles with the Jews in the church. The sacred historian had mentioned it as Shem's honour that he was the father of the Hebrews; but, lest Japheth's seed should therefore be looked upon as for ever shut out from the church, he here reminds us that he was the brother of Japheth, not in birth only, but in blessing; for Japheth was to dwell in the tents of Shem. Note, (1.) Those are brethren in the best manner that are so by grace, and that meet in the covenant of God and in the communion of saints. (2.) God, in dispensing his grace, does not go by seniority, but the younger sometimes gets the start of the elder in coming into the church; so the last shall be first and the first last.

_ _ II. The reason of the name of Peleg (Genesis 10:25): Because in his days (that is, about the time of his birth, when his name was given him), was the earth divided among the children of men that were to inhabit it; either when Noah divided it by an orderly distribution of it, as Joshua divided the land of Canaan by lot, or when, upon their refusal to comply with that division, God, in justice, divided them by the confusion of tongues: whichsoever of these was the occasion, pious Heber saw cause to perpetuate the remembrance of it in the name of his son; and justly may our sons be called by the same name, for in our days, in another sense, is the earth, the church, most wretchedly divided.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 10:21

Two things especially are observable in this account of the posterity of Shem. The description of Shem, Genesis 10:21, we have not only his name, Shem, which signifies a name; but two titles to distinguish him by.

He was the father of all the children of Eber. Eber was his great grandson, but why should he be called the father of all his children, rather than of all Arphaxad's or Salah's? Probably because Abraham and his seed, not only descended from Heber, but from him were called Hebrews. Eber himself, we may suppose, was a man eminent for religion in a time of general apostasy; and the holy tongue being commonly called from him the Hebrew, it is probable he retained it in his family in the confusion of Babel, as a special token of God's favour to him. He was the brother of Japheth the elder; by which it appears, that though Shem be commonly put first, yet he was not Noah's first — born, but Japheth was elder. But why should this also be put as part of Shem's description, that he was the brother of Japheth, since that had been said before? Probably this is intended to signify the union of the Gentiles with the Jews in the church. He had mentioned it as Shem's honour, that he was the father of the Hebrews; but lest Japheth's seed should therefore be looked upon as shut out from the church, he here minds us, that he was the brother of Japheth, not in birth only, but in blessing, for Japheth was to dwell in the tents of Shem.

The reason of the name of Peleg, Genesis 10:25, because, in his days, (that is, about the time of his birth) was the earth divided among the children of men that were to inhabit it; either when Noah divided it, by an orderly distribution of it, as Joshua divided the land of Canaan by lot, or when, upon their refusal to comply with that division, God, in justice, divided them by the confusion of tongues.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 10:21

Unto (i) Shem also, the father of all the children of (k) Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were [children] born.

(i) In his stock the Church was preserved: therefore Moses stops speaking of Japheth and Ham, and speaks of Shem extensively.

(k) Of whom came the Hebrews or Jews.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Shem:
Shem signifies name or renown; and his, indeed, was great both in a temporal and spiritual sense, inasmuch as he was destined to be the lineal ancestor of the promised Seed of the woman, to which Noah might allude in his pious ejaculation,
Genesis 9:26 And he said, Blessed [be] the LORD God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant.
.

the father:

Genesis 11:10-26 These [are] the generations of Shem: Shem [was] an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood: ... And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

Eber:

Numbers 24:24 And ships [shall come] from the coast of Chittim, and shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber, and he also shall perish for ever.

the brother:

Genesis 10:2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.
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Gn 9:26; 10:2; 11:10. Nu 24:24.

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