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Genesis 14:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— And it came about in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel the king of Shinar, Arioch the king of El-lasar, Chedorlaomer the king of Elam, and Tidal the king of nations,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And it came to pass, in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar, Arioch, king of Ellasar,—Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Tidal, king of Goim,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And it cometh to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goyim,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And it came to pass at that time, that Amraphel, king of Sennaar, and Arioch, king of Pontus, and Chodorlahomor, king of the Elamites, and Thadal, king of nations,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And it came to passe in the dayes of Amraphel King of Shinar, Arioch King of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer King of Elam, and Tidal King of nations:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And it came to pass in the reign of Amarphal king of Sennaar, and Arioch king of Ellasar, that Chodollogomor king of Elam, and Thargal king of nations,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And it came to pass in the days of Amrafel king of Shinar, Aryokh king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And it came to pass x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
in the days 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
of ´Amräfel אַמרָפֶל 569
{0569} Prime
אַמְרָפֶל
'Amraphel
{am-raw-fel'}
Of uncertain (perhaps foreign) derivation; Amraphel, a king of Shinar.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of Šin`är שִׁנעָר, 8152
{8152} Prime
שִׁנְעָר
Shin`ar
{shin-awr'}
Probably of foreign derivation; Shinar, a plain in Babylon.
´Aryô¢ אַריוֹך 746
{0746} Prime
אַרְיוֹךְ
'Aryowk
{ar-yoke'}
Of foreign origin; Arjok, the name of two Babylonians.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of ´Elläsär אֶלָּסָר, 495
{0495} Prime
אֶלָּסָר
'Ellacar
{el-law-sawr'}
Probably of foreign derivation; Ellasar, an early country of Asia.
Cæðorlä`ömer כְּדָרלָעֹמֶר 3540
{3540} Prime
כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר
K@dorla`omer
{ked-or-law-o'-mer}
Of foreign origin; Kedorlaomer, an early Persian king.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of `Êläm עֵילָם, 5867
{5867} Prime
עֵילָם
`Eylam
{ay-lawm'}
Probably from H5956; hidden, that is, distant; Elam, a son of Shem, and his descendants, with their country; also of six Israelites.
and Tið`äl תִּדעָל 8413
{8413} Prime
תִּדְעָל
Tid`al
{tid-awl'}
Perhaps from H1763; fearfulness; Tidal, a Canaanite.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of nations; 1471
{1471} Prime
גּוֹי
gowy
{go'-ee}
Apparently from the same root as H1465 (in the sense of massing); a foreign nation; hence a Gentile; also (figuratively) a troop of animals, or a flight of locusts.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 14:1

_ _ Genesis 14:1-24. War.

_ _ And it came to pass — This chapter presents Abram in the unexpected character of a warrior. The occasion was this: The king of Sodom and the kings of the adjoining cities, after having been tributaries for twelve years to the king of Elam, combined to throw off his yoke. To chastise their rebellion, as he deemed it, Chedorlaomer, with the aid of three allies, invaded the territories of the refractory princes, defeated them in a pitched battle where the nature of the ground favored his army (Genesis 14:10), and hastened in triumph on his homeward march, with a large amount of captives and booty, though merely a stranger.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 14:1-12

_ _ We have here an account of the first war that ever we read of in scripture, which (though the wars of the nations make the greatest figure in history) we should not have had the history of if Abram and Lot had not been concerned in it. Now, concerning this war, we may observe,

_ _ I. The parties engaged in it. The invaders were four kings, two of them no less than kings of Shinar and Elam (that is, Chaldea and Persia), yet probably not the sovereign princes of those great kingdoms in their own persons, but either officers under them, or rather the heads and leaders of some colonies which came out of those great nations, and settled themselves near Sodom, but retained the names of the countries from which they had their origin. The invaded were the kings of five cities that lay near together in the plain of Jordan, namely, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar. Four of them are named, but not the fifth, the king of Zoar or Bela, either because he was much more mean and inconsiderable or because he was much more wicked and inglorious than the rest, and worthy to be forgotten.

_ _ II. The occasion of this war was the revolt of the five kings from under the government of Chedorlaomer. Twelve years they served him. Small joy they had of their fruitful land, while thus they were tributaries to a foreign power, and could not call what they had their own. Rich countries are a desirable prey, and idle luxurious countries are an easy prey, to growing greatness. The Sodomites were the posterity of Canaan whom Noah had pronounced a servant to Shem, from whom Elam descended; thus soon did that prophecy begin to e fulfilled. In the thirteenth year, beginning to be weary of their subjection, they rebelled, denied their tribute, and attempted to shake off the yoke and retrieve their ancient liberties. In the fourteenth year, after some pause and preparation, Chedorlaomer, in conjunction with his allies, set himself to chastise and reduce the rebels, and, since he could not have it otherwise, to fetch his tribute from them on the point of his sword. Note, Pride, covetousness, and ambition, are the lusts from which wars and fightings come. To these insatiable idols the blood of thousands has been sacrificed.

_ _ III. The progress and success of the war. The four kings laid the neighbouring countries waste and enriched themselves with the spoil of them (Genesis 14:5-7), upon the alarm of which it had been the wisdom of the king of Sodom to submit, and desire conditions of peace; for how could he grapple with an enemy thus flushed with victory? But he would rather venture the utmost extremity than yield, and it sped accordingly. Quos Deus destruet eos dementatThose whom God means to destroy he delivers up to infatuation. 1. The forces of the king of Sodom and his allies were routed; and, it should seem, many of them perished in the slime-pits who had escaped the sword, Genesis 14:10. In all places we are surrounded with deaths of various kinds, especially in the field of battle. 2. The cities were plundered, Genesis 14:11. All the goods of Sodom, and particularly their stores and provisions of victuals, were carried off by the conquerors. Note, When men abuse the gifts of a bountiful providence to gluttony and excess, it is just with God, and his usual way, by some judgment or other to strip them of that which they have so abused, Hosea 2:8, Hosea 2:9. 3. Lot was carried captive, Genesis 14:12. They took Lot among the rest, and his goods. Now Lot may here be considered, (1.) As sharing with his neighbours in this common calamity. Though he was himself a righteous man, and (which is here expressly noticed) Abram's brother's son, yet he was involved with the rest in all this trouble. Note, All things come alike to all, Ecclesiastes 9:2. The best of men cannot promise themselves an exemption from the greatest troubles in this life; neither from our own piety nor our relation to those that are the favourites of heaven will be our security, when God's judgments are abroad. Note, further, Many an honest man fares the worse for his wicked neighbours. It is therefore our wisdom to separate ourselves, or at least to distinguish ourselves, from them (2 Corinthians 6:17), and so deliver ourselves, Revelation 18:4. (2.) As smarting for the foolish choice he made of a settlement here. This is plainly intimated when it is said, They took Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom. So near a relation of Abram should have been a companion and disciple of Abram, and should have abode by his tents; but, if he choose to dwell in Sodom, he must thank himself if he share in Sodom's calamities. Note, When we go out of the way of our duty we put ourselves from under God's protection, and cannot expect that the choices which are made by our lusts should issue to our comfort. Particular mention is made of their taking Lot's goods, those goods which had occasioned his contest with Abram and his separation from him. Note, It is just with God to deprive us of those enjoyments by which we have suffered ourselves to be deprived of our enjoyment of him.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 14:1

We have here an account of the first war that ever we read of in scripture, in which we may observe. [1.] The parties engaged in it. The invaders were four kings; two of them no less than kings of Shinar and Elam — That is, Chaldea and Persia; yet probably not the sovereign princes of those great kingdoms, but rather the heads of some colonies which came out thence, and settled themselves near Sodom, but retained the names of the countries from which they had their original. The invaded were the kings of five cities that lay near together in the plain of Jordan, Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Zoar. [2.] The occasion of this war was, the revolt of the five kings from under the government of Chedorlaomer.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 14:1

And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of (a) Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of (b) nations;

(a) That is, of Babylon: by kings here, meaning, them that were governors of cities.

(b) Of a people gathered from various countries.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2091, bc 1913

Shinar:

Genesis 10:10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.
Genesis 11:2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.
Isaiah 11:11 And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
Daniel 1:2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.
Zechariah 5:11 And he said unto me, To build it an house in the land of Shinar: and it shall be established, and set there upon her own base.

Ellasar:

Isaiah 37:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed, [as] Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden which [were] in Telassar?

Elam:

Genesis 10:22 The children of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.
Isaiah 21:2 A grievous vision is declared unto me; the treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O Elam: besiege, O Media; all the sighing thereof have I made to cease.
Isaiah 22:6 And Elam bare the quiver with chariots of men [and] horsemen, and Kir uncovered the shield.
Jeremiah 25:25 And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes,
Jeremiah 49:34-39 The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet against Elam in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, saying, ... But it shall come to pass in the latter days, [that] I will bring again the captivity of Elam, saith the LORD.
Ezekiel 32:24 There [is] Elam and all her multitude round about her grave, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of the earth, which caused their terror in the land of the living; yet have they borne their shame with them that go down to the pit.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 10:10, 22; 11:2. Is 11:11; 21:2; 22:6; 37:12. Jr 25:25; 49:34. Ezk 32:24. Dn 1:2. Zc 5:11.

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