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Genesis 19:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— But before they lay down, the men of the city, [even] the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both young and old, all the people from every quarter;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But before they lay down, the men of the city, [even] the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the people from every quarter;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But before they lay down, the men of the city, [even] the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both old and young, all the people from every quarter:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from the youngest to the oldest—all the people from every quarter.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Ere yet they lay down, the men of the city—the men of Sodom, had come round against the house, from youth, even unto age,—all the people from every quarter.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Before they lie down, the men of the city—men of Sodom—have come round about against the house, from young even unto aged, all the people from the extremity;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— But before they went to bed, the men of the city beset the house, both young and old, all the people together.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But before they lay downe, the men of the citie, [euen] the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and yong, all the people from euery quarter.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— But before they went to sleep, the men of the city, the Sodomites, compassed the house, both young and old, all the people together.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— But before they lay down, the men of the city, [even] the men of Sedom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But before x2962
(2962) Complement
טֶרֶם
terem
{teh'-rem}
From an unused root apparently meaning to interrupt or suspend; properly non-occurrence; used adverbially not yet or before.
they lay down, 7901
{7901} Prime
שָׁכַב
shakab
{shaw-kab'}
A primitive root; to lie down (for rest, sexual connection, decease or any other purpose).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
the men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
of the city, 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
[even] the men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
of Sm סְדֹם, 5467
{5467} Prime
סְדֹם
C@dom
{sed-ome'}
From an unused root meaning to scorch; burnt (that is, volcanic or bituminous) district; Sedom, a place near the Dead Sea.
compassed 5437
{5437} Prime
סָבַב
cabab
{saw-bab'}
A primitive root; to revolve, surround or border; used in various applications, literally and figuratively.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the house 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
round, y5437
[5437] Standard
סָבַב
cabab
{saw-bab'}
A primitive root; to revolve, surround or border; used in various applications, literally and figuratively.
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
both old 2205
{2205} Prime
זָקֵן
zaqen
{zaw-kane'}
From H2204; old.
and young, 5288
{5288} Prime
נַעַר
na`ar
{nah'-ar}
From H5287; (concretely) a boy (as active), from the age of infancy to adolescence; by implication a servant; also (by interchange of sex), a girl (of similar latitude in age).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
from every quarter: 7097
{7097} Prime
קָצֶה
qatseh
{kaw-tseh'}
The second form is negative only; from H7096; an extremity (used in a great variety of applications and idioms; compare H7093).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 19:4

_ _ men of Sodom, compassed the house — Appalling proofs are here given of their wickedness. It is evident that evil communications had corrupted good manners; otherwise Lot would never have acted as he did.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 19:4-11

_ _ Now it appeared, beyond contradiction, that the cry of Sodom was no louder than there was cause for. This night's work was enough to fill the measure. For we find here,

_ _ I. That they were all wicked, Genesis 19:4. Wickedness had become universal, and they were unanimous in any vile design. Here were old and young, and all from every quarter, engaged in this riot; the old were not past it, and the young had soon come up to it. Either they had no magistrates to keep the peace, and protect the peaceable, or their magistrates were themselves aiding and abetting. Note, When the disease of sin has become epidemical, it is fatal to any place, Isaiah 1:5-7.

_ _ II. That they had arrived at the highest pitch of wickedness; they were sinners before the Lord exceedingly (Genesis 13:13); for, 1. It was the most unnatural and abominable wickedness that they were now set upon, a sin that still bears their name, and is called Sodomy. They were carried headlong by those vile affections (Romans 1:26, Romans 1:27), which are worse than brutish, and the eternal reproach of the human nature, and which cannot be thought of without horror by those that have the least spark of virtue and any remains of natural light and conscience. Note, Those that allow themselves in unnatural uncleanness are marked for the vengeance of eternal fire. See Jude 1:7. 2. They were not ashamed to own it, and to prosecute their design by force and arms. The practice would have been bad enough if it had been carried on by intrigue and wheedling; but they proclaimed war with virtue, and bade open defiance to it. Hence daring sinners are said to declare their sin as Sodom, Isaiah 3:9. Note, Those that have become impudent in sin generally prove impenitent in sin; and it will be their ruin. Those have hard hearts indeed that sin with a high hand, Jeremiah 6:15. 3. When Lot interposed, with all the mildness imaginable, to check the rage and fury of their lust, they were most insolently rude and abusive to him. He ventured himself among them, Jeremiah 6:6. He spoke civilly to them, called them brethren (Genesis 19:7), and begged of them not to do so wickedly; and, being greatly disturbed at their vile attempt, he unadvisedly and unjustifiably offered to prostitute his two daughters to them, Genesis 19:8. It is true, of two evils we must choose the less; but of two sins we must choose neither, nor ever do evil that good may come of it. He reasoned with them, pleaded the laws of hospitality and the protection of his house which his guests were entitled to; but he might as well have offered reason to a roaring lion and a raging bear as to these head-strong sinners, who were governed only by lust and passion. Lot's arguing with them does but exasperate them; and, to complete their wickedness, and fill up the measure of it, they fall foul upon him. (1.) They ridicule him, charge him with the absurdity of pretending to be a magistrate, when he was not so much as a free-man of their city, Genesis 19:9. Note, It is common for a reprover to be unjustly upbraided as a usurper; and, while offering the kindness of a friend, to be charged with assuming the authority of a judge: as if a man might not speak reason without taking too much upon him. (2.) They threaten him, and lay violent hands upon him; and the good man is in danger of being pulled in pieces by this outrageous rabble. Note, [1.] Those that hate to be reformed hate those that reprove them, though with ever so much tenderness. Presumptuous sinners do by their consciences as the Sodomites did by Lot, baffle their checks, stifle their accusations, press hard upon them, till they have seared them and quite stopped their mouths, and so made themselves ripe for ruin. [2.] Abuses offered to God's messengers and to faithful reprovers soon fill the measure of a people's wickedness, and bring destruction without remedy. See Proverbs 29:1, and 2 Chronicles 36:16. If reproofs remedy not, there is no remedy. See 2 Chronicles 25:16.

_ _ III. That nothing less than the power of an angel could save a good man out of their wicked hands. It was now past dispute what Sodom's character was and what course must be taken with it, and therefore the angels immediately give a specimen of what they further intended. 1. They rescue Lot, 2 Chronicles 25:10. Note, He that watereth shall be watered also himself. Lot was solicitous to protect them, and now they take effectual care for his safety, in return for his kindness. Note further, Angels are employed for the special preservation of those that expose themselves to danger by well-doing. The saints, at death, are pulled like Lot into a house of perfect safety, and the door shut for ever against those that pursue them. 2. They chastise the insolence of the Sodomites: They smote them with blindness, Genesis 19:11. This was designed, (1.) To put an end to their attempt, and disable them from pursuing it. Justly were those struck blind who had been deaf to reason. Violent persecutors are often infatuated so that they cannot push on their malicious designs against God's messengers, Job 5:14, Job 5:15. Yet these Sodomites, after they were struck blind, continued seeking the door, to break it down, till they were tired. No judgments will, of themselves, change the corrupt natures and purposes of wicked men. If their minds had not been blinded as well as their bodies, they would have said, as the magicians, This is the finger of God, and would have submitted. (2.) It was to be an earnest of their utter ruin, the next day. When God, in a way of righteous judgment, blinds men, their condition is already desperate, Romans 11:8, Romans 11:9.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 19:4

Here were old and young all from every quarter — The old were not past it, and the young were soon come up to it. Either they had no magistrates to protect the peaceable, or their magistrates were themselves aiding and abetting.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 19:4

But before they lay down, the men of the city, [even] the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, (d) all the people from every quarter:

(d) Nothing is more dangerous than to live where sin reigns: for it corrupts all.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
But:

Proverbs 4:16 For they sleep not, except they have done mischief; and their sleep is taken away, unless they cause [some] to fall.
Proverbs 6:18 An heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet that be swift in running to mischief,
Micah 7:3 That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince asketh, and the judge [asketh] for a reward; and the great [man], he uttereth his mischievous desire: so they wrap it up.
Romans 3:15 Their feet [are] swift to shed blood:

all:

Genesis 13:13 But the men of Sodom [were] wicked and sinners before the LORD exceedingly.
Genesis 18:20 And the LORD said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous;
Exodus 16:2 And the whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness:
Exodus 23:2 Thou shalt not follow a multitude to [do] evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest [judgment]:
Jeremiah 5:1-6 Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now, and know, and seek in the broad places thereof, if ye can find a man, if there be [any] that executeth judgment, that seeketh the truth; and I will pardon it. ... Wherefore a lion out of the forest shall slay them, [and] a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them, a leopard shall watch over their cities: every one that goeth out thence shall be torn in pieces: because their transgressions are many, [and] their backslidings are increased.
Jeremiah 5:31 The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and my people love [to have it] so: and what will ye do in the end thereof?
Matthew 27:20-25 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. ... Then answered all the people, and said, His blood [be] on us, and on our children.
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Gn 13:13; 18:20. Ex 16:2; 23:2. Pv 4:16; 6:18. Jr 5:1, 31. Mi 7:3. Mt 27:20. Ro 3:15.

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