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Genesis 36:31 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And these [are] the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the sons of Israel.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And these [are] the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before there reigned a king over the children of Israel.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, these, are the kings, who reigned in the land of Edom,—before there reigned a king of the sons of Israel:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And these [are] the kings who have reigned in the land of Edom before the reigning of a king over the sons of Israel.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the kings that ruled in the land of Edom, before the children of Israel had a king, were these:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And these [are] the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king ouer the children of Israel.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— These [are] the kings which reigned in Edom, before a king reigned in Israel.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And these [are] the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Yisrael.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And these x428
(0428) Complement
אֵלֶּה
'el-leh
{ale'-leh}
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
[are] the kings 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
reigned 4427
{4427} Prime
מָלַךְ
malak
{maw-lak'}
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
in the land 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
of m אֱדוֹם, 123
{0123} Prime
אֱדֹם
'Edom
{ed-ome'}
From H0122; red (see Genesis 25:25); Edom, the elder twin-brother of Jacob; hence the region (Idumaea) occuped by him.
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
there reigned 4427
{4427} Prime
מָלַךְ
malak
{maw-lak'}
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
any king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
over the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל. 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 36:31-39

_ _ kings of Edom — The royal power was not built on the ruins of the dukedoms, but existed at the same time.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Genesis 36:31-43

_ _ By degrees, it seems, the Edomites wormed out the Horites, obtained full possession of the country, and had a government of their own. 1. They were ruled by kings, who governed the whole country, and seem to have come to the throne by election, and not by lineal descent; so bishop Patrick observes. These kings reigned in Edom before there reigned any king over the children of Israel, that is, before Moses's time, for he was king in Jeshurun, Genesis 36:3. God had lately promised Jacob that kings should come out of his loins (Genesis 35:11), yet Esau's blood becomes royal long before any of Jacob's did. Note, In external prosperity and honour, the children of the covenant are often cast behind, and those that are out of covenant get the start. The triumphing of the wicked may be quick, but it is short; soon ripe, and as soon rotten: but the products of the promise, though they are slow, are sure and lasting; at the end it shall speak, and not lie. We may suppose it was a great trial to the faith of God's Israel to hear of the pomp and power of the kings of Edom, while they were bond-slaves in Egypt; but those that look for great things from God must be content to wait for them; God's time is the best time. 2. They were afterwards governed by dukes, again here named, who, I suppose, ruled all at the same time in several places in the country. Either they set up this form of government in conformity to the Horites, who had used it (Genesis 36:29), or God's providence reduced them to it, as some conjecture, to correct them for their unkindness to Israel, in refusing them a passage though their country, Numbers 20:18. Note, When power is abused, it is just with God to weaken it, by turning it into divers channels. For the transgression of a land, many are the princes thereof. Sin brought Edom from kings to dukes, from crowns to coronets. We read of the dukes of Edom (Exodus 15:15), yet, long afterwards, of their kings again. 3. Mount Seir is called the land of their possession, Genesis 36:43. While the Israelites dwelt in the house of bondage, and their Canaan was only the land of promise, the Edomites dwelt in their own habitations, and Seir was in their possession. Note, The children of this world have their all in hand, and nothing in hope (Luke 16:25); while the children of God have their all in hope, and next to nothing in hand. But, all things considered, it is better to have Canaan in promise than mount Seir in possession.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 36:31

By degrees the Edomites worked out the Horites, and got full possession of the country. They were ruled by kings who governed the whole country, and seem to have come to the throne by election, and not by lineal descent: these kings reigned in Edom before there reigned any king over the children of Israel — That is, before Moses's time, for he was king in Jeshurun. God had lately promised Jacob that kings shall come out of his loins: yet Esau's blood becomes royal long before any of Jacob's did. Probably it was a trial to the faith of Israel, to hear of the power of the kings of Edom, while they were bond — slaves in Egypt: but those that look for great things from God must be content to wait for them. God's time is the best time. They were afterward's governed by dukes again, here named, who, I suppose, ruled all at the same time in several places in the country. They set up this form of government, either in conformity to the Horites, who had used it, Genesis 36:29, or God's providence reduced them to it, as some conjecture, to correct them for their unkindness to Israel, in refusing them passage through their country, Numbers 20:18.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 36:31

And these [are] the (g) kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.

(g) The wicked rise up suddenly to honour and perish as quickly: but the inheritance of the children of God continues forever, (Psalms 102:28).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the kings:

Genesis 17:6 And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.
Genesis 17:16 And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be [a mother] of nations; kings of people shall be of her.
Genesis 25:23 And the LORD said unto her, Two nations [are] in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and [the one] people shall be stronger than [the other] people; and the elder shall serve the younger.
Numbers 20:14 And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh unto the king of Edom, Thus saith thy brother Israel, Thou knowest all the travail that hath befallen us:
Numbers 24:17-18 I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth. ... And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a possession for his enemies; and Israel shall do valiantly.
Deuteronomy 17:14-20 When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me, like as all the nations that [are] about me; ... That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, [to] the right hand, or [to] the left: to the end that he may prolong [his] days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel.
Deuteronomy 33:5 And he was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people [and] the tribes of Israel were gathered together.
Deuteronomy 33:29 Happy [art] thou, O Israel: who [is] like unto thee, O people saved by the LORD, the shield of thy help, and who [is] the sword of thy excellency! and thine enemies shall be found liars unto thee; and thou shalt tread upon their high places.
1 Chronicles 1:43-50 Now these [are] the kings that reigned in the land of Edom before [any] king reigned over the children of Israel; Bela the son of Beor: and the name of his city [was] Dinhabah. ... And when Baalhanan was dead, Hadad reigned in his stead: and the name of his city [was] Pai; and his wife's name [was] Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.

before there:
Moses may here allude to the promise which God made to Jacob (
Genesis 35:11 And God said unto him, I [am] God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins;
), that kings should proceed from him; and here states that these kings reigned before that prophecy began to be fulfilled.
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Gn 17:6, 16; 25:23; 35:11. Nu 20:14; 24:17. Dt 17:14; 33:5, 29. 1Ch 1:43.

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