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Genesis 4:15 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Jehovah said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And Jehovah appointed a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should smite him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So the LORD said to him, “Therefore whoever kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold.” And the LORD appointed a sign for Cain, so that no one finding him would slay him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the LORD said to him, Therefore whoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him seven-fold. And the LORD set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Jehovah said to him, Therefore, whoever slayeth Cain, it shall be revenged sevenfold. And Jehovah set a mark on Cain, lest any finding him should smite him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Yahweh said to him—Not so! whosoever slayeth Cain, sevenfold, shall it be avenged. So Yahweh set, for Cain, a sign, that none finding him should smite him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Jehovah saith to him, 'Therefore—of any slayer of Cain sevenfold it is required;' and Jehovah setteth to Cain a token that none finding him doth slay him.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Lord said to him: No, it shall not so be: but whosoever shall kill Cain, shall be punished sevenfold. And the Lord set a mark upon Cain, that whosoever found him should not kill him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the LORD said vnto him, Therefore whosoeuer slayeth Cain, vengeance shalbe taken on him seuen fold. And the LORD set a marke vpon Cain, lest any finding him, should kill him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Lord God said to him, Not so, any one that slays Cain shall suffer seven-fold vengeance; and the Lord God set a mark upon Cain that no one that found him might slay him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Yahweh said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Qayin, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And Yahweh set a mark upon Qayin, lest any finding him should kill him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
said 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto him, Therefore 3651
{3651} Prime
כֵּן
ken
{kane}
From H3559; properly set upright; hence (figuratively as adjective) just; but usually (as adverb or conjugation) rightly or so (in various applications to manner, time and relation; often with other particles).
whosoever x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
slayeth 2026
{2026} Prime
הָרַג
harag
{haw-rag'}
A primitive root; to smite with deadly intent.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
Kayin קַיִן, 7014
{7014} Prime
קַיִן
Qayin
{kah'-yin}
The same as H7013 (with a play upon the affinity to H7069); Kajin, the name of the first child, also of a place in Palestine, and of an Oriental tribe.
vengeance shall be taken 5358
{5358} Prime
נָקַם
naqam
{naw-kam'}
A primitive root; to grudge, that is, avenge or punish.
z8714
<8714> Grammar
Stem - Hophal (See H8825)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 178
on him sevenfold. 7659
{7659} Prime
שִׁבְעָתַיִם
shib`athayim
{shib-aw-thah'-yim}
Dual (adverb) of H7651; seven times.
And Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
set 7760
{7760} Prime
שׂוּם
suwm
{soom}
A primitive root; to put (used in a great variety of applications, literally, figuratively, inferentially and elliptically).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
a mark 226
{0226} Prime
אוֹת
'owth
{oth}
Probably from H0225 (in the sense of appearing); a signal (literally or figuratively), as a flag, beacon, monument, omen, prodigy, evidence, etc.
upon Kayin קַיִן, 7014
{7014} Prime
קַיִן
Qayin
{kah'-yin}
The same as H7013 (with a play upon the affinity to H7069); Kajin, the name of the first child, also of a place in Palestine, and of an Oriental tribe.
lest 1115
{1115} Prime
בִּלְתִּי
biltiy
{bil-tee'}
Constructive feminine of H1086 (equivalent to H1097); properly a failure of, that is, (used only as a negative particle, usually with prepositional prefix) not, except, without, unless, besides, because not, until, etc.
any x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
finding 4672
{4672} Prime
מָצָא
matsa'
{maw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; properly to come forth to, that is, appear or exist; transitively to attain, that is, find or acquire; figuratively to occur, meet or be present.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
him should kill 5221
{5221} Prime
נָכָה
nakah
{naw-kaw'}
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
him.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Genesis 4:15

_ _ whosoever slayeth Cain — By a special act of divine forbearance, the life of Cain was to be spared in the then small state of the human race.

_ _ set a mark — not any visible mark or brand on his forehead, but some sign or token of assurance that his life would be preserved. This sign is thought by the best writers to have been a wild ferocity of aspect that rendered him an object of universal horror and avoidance.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Genesis 4:13-15.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Genesis 4:15

Whosoever slayeth Cain vengeance shall be taken on him seven — fold — God having said in Cain's case Vengeance is mine, I will repay; it had been a daring usurpation for any man to take the sword out of God's hand. And the Lord set a mark upon Cain — To distinguish him from the rest of mankind. What the mark was, God has not told us: therefore the conjectures of men are vain.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Genesis 4:15

And the LORD said unto him, Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, (n) vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And the LORD set a (o) mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him.

(n) Not for the love he had for Cain, but to suppress murder.

(o) Which was some visible sign of God's judgment, that others should fear by it.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Therefore:

1 Kings 16:7 And also by the hand of the prophet Jehu the son of Hanani came the word of the LORD against Baasha, and against his house, even for all the evil that he did in the sight of the LORD, in provoking him to anger with the work of his hands, in being like the house of Jeroboam; and because he killed him.
Psalms 59:11 Slay them not, lest my people forget: scatter them by thy power; and bring them down, O Lord our shield.
Hosea 1:4 And the LORD said unto him, Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little [while], and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will cause to cease the kingdom of the house of Israel.
Matthew 26:52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.

sevenfold:

Genesis 4:24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.
Leviticus 26:18 And if ye will not yet for all this hearken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins.
Leviticus 26:21 And if ye walk contrary unto me, and will not hearken unto me; I will bring seven times more plagues upon you according to your sins.
Leviticus 26:24 Then will I also walk contrary unto you, and will punish you yet seven times for your sins.
Leviticus 26:28 Then I will walk contrary unto you also in fury; and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins.
Psalms 79:12 And render unto our neighbours sevenfold into their bosom their reproach, wherewith they have reproached thee, O Lord.
Proverbs 6:31 But [if] he be found, he shall restore sevenfold; he shall give all the substance of his house.

set a mark:
etc. Or, rather, "gave a sign or token to Cain, that those who found him should not kill him."
Ezekiel 9:4 And the LORD said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof.
Ezekiel 9:6 Slay utterly old [and] young, both maids, and little children, and women: but come not near any man upon whom [is] the mark; and begin at my sanctuary. Then they began at the ancient men which [were] before the house.
Revelation 14:9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive [his] mark in his forehead, or in his hand,
Revelation 14:11 And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 4:24. Lv 26:18, 21, 24, 28. 1K 16:7. Ps 59:11; 79:12. Pv 6:31. Ezk 9:4, 6. Ho 1:4. Mt 26:52. Rv 14:9, 11.

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