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Leviticus 5:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and [is] a witness, whether he hath seen or known [of it]; if he do not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— ‘Now if a person sins after he hears a public adjuration [to testify] when he is a witness, whether he has seen or [otherwise] known, if he does not tell [it], then he will bear his guilt.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And if a soul shall sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and be a witness, whether he hath seen or known [of it]; if he doth not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And if any one sin, and hear the voice of adjuration, and he is a witness whether he hath seen or known [it], if he do not give information, then he shall bear his iniquity.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Any person, moreover, whensoever he shall sin, in that, when he heareth a voice of swearing, he himself, being a witness, either seeing or knowing,—if he do not tell, and so hath to bear his iniquity:—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And when a person doth sin, and hath heard the voice of an oath, and he [is] witness, or hath seen, or hath known—if he declare not, then he hath borne his iniquity:
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— If any one sin, and hear the voice of one swearing, and is a witness either because he himself hath seen, or is privy to it: if he do not utter it, he shall bear his iniquity.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And if a soule sinne, and heare the voyce of swearing, and is a witnesse, whether he hath seene or knowen [of it], if he doe not vtter it, then he shall beare his iniquity.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and he is a witness or has seen or been conscious, if he do not report it, he shall bear his iniquity.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and [is] a witness, whether he hath seen or known [of it]; if he do not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And if x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
a soul 5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
sin, 2398
{2398} Prime
חטא
chata'
{khaw-taw'}
A primitive root; properly to miss; hence (figuratively and generally) to sin; by inference to forfeit, lack, expiate, repent, (causatively) lead astray, condemn.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and hear 8085
{8085} Prime
שָׁמַע
shama`
{shaw-mah'}
A primitive root; to hear intelligently (often with implication of attention, obedience, etc.; causatively to tell, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
the voice 6963
{6963} Prime
קוֹל
qowl
{kole}
From an unused root meaning to call aloud; a voice or sound.
of swearing, 423
{0423} Prime
אָלָה
'alah
{aw-law'}
From H0422; an imprecation.
and [is] a witness, 5707
{5707} Prime
עֵד
`ed
{ayd}
From H5749 contracted; concretely a witness; abstractly testimony; specifically a recorder, that is, prince.
whether 176
{0176} Prime
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
he hath seen 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
known 3045
{3045} Prime
ידע
yada`
{yaw-dah'}
A primitive root; to know (properly to ascertain by seeing); used in a great variety of senses, figuratively, literally, euphemistically and inferentially (including observation, care, recognition; and causatively instruction, designation, punishment, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
[of it]; if x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
he do not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
utter 5046
{5046} Prime
נָגַד
nagad
{naw-gad'}
A primitive root; properly to front, that is, stand boldly out opposite; by implication (causatively), to manifest; figuratively to announce (always by word of mouth to one present); specifically to expose, predict, explain, praise.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
[it], then he shall bear 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
his iniquity. 5771
{5771} Prime
עָוֹן
`avon
{aw-vone'}
From H5753; perversity, that is, (moral) evil.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Leviticus 5:1

_ _ Leviticus 5:1. Trespass offerings for concealing knowledge.

_ _ if a soul ... hear the voice of swearing — or, according to some, “the words of adjuration.” A proclamation was issued calling any one who could give information, to come before the court and bear testimony to the guilt of a criminal; and the manner in which witnesses were interrogated in the Jewish courts of justice was not by swearing them directly, but adjuring them by reading the words of an oath: “the voice of swearing.” The offense, then, for the expiation of which this law provides, was that of a person who neglected or avoided the opportunity of lodging the information which it was in his power to communicate.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Leviticus 5:1-6

_ _ I. The offences here supposed are, 1. A man's concealing the truth when he was sworn as a witness to speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Judges among the Jews had power to adjure not only the witnesses, as with us, but the person suspected (contrary to a rule of our law, that no man is bound to accuse himself), as appears by the high priest adjuring our Saviour, who thereupon answered, though before he stood silent, Matthew 26:63, Matthew 26:64. Now (Leviticus 5:1), If a soul sin (that is, a person, for the soul is the man), if he hear the voice of swearing (that is, if he be adjured to testify what he knows, by an oath of the Lord upon him, 1 Kings 8:31), if in such a case, for fear of offending one that either has been his friend or may be his enemy, he refuses to give evidence, or gives it but in part, he shall bear his iniquity. And that is a heavy burden, which, if some course be not taken to get it removed, will sink a man to the lowest hell. He that heareth cursing (that is, that is thus adjured) and betrayeth it not (that is, stifles his evidence, and does not utter it), he is a partner with the sinner, and hateth his own soul; see Proverbs 29:24. Let all that are called out at any time to bear testimony think of this law, and be free and open in their evidence, and take heed of prevaricating. An oath of the Lord is a sacred thing, and not to be dallied with. 2. A man's touching any thing that was ceremonially unclean, Leviticus 5:2, Leviticus 5:3. If a man, polluted by such touch, came into the sanctuary inconsiderately, or if he neglected to wash himself according to the law, then he was to look upon himself as under guilt, and must bring his offering. Though his touching the unclean thing contracted only a ceremonial defilement, yet his neglect to wash himself according to the law was such an instance either of carelessness or contempt as contracted a moral guilt. If at first it be hidden from him, yet when he knows it he shall be guilty. Note, As soon as ever God by his Spirit convinces our consciences of any sin or duty we must immediately set in with the conviction, and prosecute it, as those that are not ashamed to own our former mistake. 3. Rash swearing. If a man binds himself by an oath that he will do or not do such a thing, and the performance of his oath afterwards proves either unlawful or impracticable, by which he is discharged from the obligation, yet he must bring an offering to atone for his fully in swearing so rashly, as David that he would kill Nabal. And then it was that he must say before the angel that it was an error, Ecclesiastes 5:6. He shall be guilty in one of these (Leviticus 5:4), guilty if he do not perform his oath, and yet, if the matter of it were evil, guilty if he do. Such wretched dilemmas as these do some men bring themselves into by their own rashness and folly; go which way they will their consciences are wounded, sin stares them in the face, so sadly are they snared in the words of their mouth. A more sad dilemma this is than that of the lepers, “If we sit still, we die; if we stir, we die.” Wisdom and watchfulness beforehand would prevent these straits.

_ _ II. Now in these cases, 1. The offender must confess his sin and bring his offering (Leviticus 5:5, Leviticus 5:6); and the offering was not accepted unless it was accompanied with a penitential confession and a humble prayer for pardon. Observe, The confession must be particular, that he hath sinned in that thing; such was David's confession (Psalms 51:4), I have done this evil; and Achan's (Joshua 7:20), Thus and thus have I done. Deceit lies in generals; many will own in general they have sinned, for that all must own, so that it is not any particular reproach to them; but that they have sinned in this thing they stand too much upon their honour to acknowledge: but the way to be well assured of pardon, and to be well armed against sin for the future, is to be particular in our penitent confessions. 2. The priest must make atonement for him. As the atonement was not accepted without his repentance, so his repentance would not justify him without the atonement. Thus, in our reconciliation to God, Christ's part and ours are both needful.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Leviticus 5:1

And hear — And for that is, as that particle is often used. For this declares in particular what the sin was. Or, namely, that of cursing, or blasphemy, or execration, as the word commonly signifies, and that either against one's neighbour, or against God. This may seem to be principally intended here, because the crime spoken of is of so high a nature, that he who heard it, was obliged to reveal it, and prosecute the guilty. He hath seen — Been present when it was said. Or known — By sufficient information from others. His iniquity — That is, the punishment of it; so that word is oft used, as Genesis 19:15, Numbers 18:1.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Leviticus 5:1

And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and [is] a witness, whether he hath seen or (a) known [of it]; if he do not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity.

(a) By which it is commanded to bear witness to the truth, and disclose the iniquity of the ungodly.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a soul:

Leviticus 5:15 If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the LORD; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering:
Leviticus 5:17 And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD; though he wist [it] not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.
Leviticus 4:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which ought not to be done, and shall do against any of them:
Ezekiel 18:4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die.
Ezekiel 18:20 The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him.

hear:

Exodus 22:11 [Then] shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept [thereof], and he shall not make [it] good.
Judges 17:2 And he said unto his mother, The eleven hundred [shekels] of silver that were taken from thee, about which thou cursedst, and spakest of also in mine ears, behold, the silver [is] with me; I took it. And his mother said, Blessed [be thou] of the LORD, my son.
1 Kings 8:31 If any man trespass against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to cause him to swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house:
1 Kings 22:16 And the king said unto him, How many times shall I adjure thee that thou tell me nothing but [that which is] true in the name of the LORD?
2 Chronicles 18:15 And the king said to him, How many times shall I adjure thee that thou say nothing but the truth to me in the name of the LORD?
Proverbs 29:24 Whoso is partner with a thief hateth his own soul: he heareth cursing, and bewrayeth [it] not.
Proverbs 30:9 Lest I be full, and deny [thee], and say, Who [is] the LORD? or lest I be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God [in vain].
Matthew 26:63 But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.

the voice of swearing:
Kol alah, rather, "the voice of adjuration," φωνην ορκισμου, as the LXX render; for this does not relate to the duty of informing against a common swearer, but to the case of a person who, being adjured by the civil magistrate to answer upon oath, refuses to declare what he knows upon the subject - such an one shall bear his iniquity - shall be considered as guilty in the sight of God of the transgression which he has endeavoured to conceal, and must expect to be punished for hiding the iniquity with which he was acquainted.

bear:

Leviticus 5:17 And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD; though he wist [it] not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.
Leviticus 7:18 And if [any] of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity.
Leviticus 17:16 But if he wash [them] not, nor bathe his flesh; then he shall bear his iniquity.
Leviticus 19:8 Therefore [every one] that eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the hallowed thing of the LORD: and that soul shall be cut off from among his people.
Leviticus 20:17 And if a man shall take his sister, his father's daughter, or his mother's daughter, and see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness; it [is] a wicked thing; and they shall be cut off in the sight of their people: he hath uncovered his sister's nakedness; he shall bear his iniquity.
Numbers 9:13 But the man that [is] clean, and is not in a journey, and forbeareth to keep the passover, even the same soul shall be cut off from among his people: because he brought not the offering of the LORD in his appointed season, that man shall bear his sin.
Psalms 38:4 For mine iniquities are gone over mine head: as an heavy burden they are too heavy for me.
Isaiah 53:11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, [and] shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.
1 Peter 2:24 Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed.
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Ex 22:11. Lv 4:2; 5:15, 17; 7:18; 17:16; 19:8; 20:17. Nu 9:13. Jg 17:2. 1K 8:31; 22:16. 2Ch 18:15. Ps 38:4. Pv 29:24; 30:9. Is 53:11. Ezk 18:4, 20. Mt 26:63. 1P 2:24.

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