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Numbers 20:14 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh unto the king of Edom, Thus saith thy brother Israel, Thou knowest all the travail that hath befallen us:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh unto the king of Edom, Thus saith thy brother Israel, Thou knowest all the travail that hath befallen us:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— From Kadesh Moses then sent messengers to the king of Edom: “Thus your brother Israel has said, ‘You know all the hardship that has befallen us;
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, Thus saith thy brother Israel, Thou knowest all the travail that hath befallen us:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, Thus says thy brother Israel: Thou knowest all the trouble that hath befallen us,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh, unto the king of Edom,—Thus, saith thy brother Israel, Thou thyself, knowest all the distress which befell us;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Moses sendeth messengers from Kadesh unto the king of Edom, 'Thus said thy brother Israel, Thou—thou hast known all the travail which hath found us;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— In the mean time Moses sent messengers from Cades to the king of Edom, to say: Thus saith thy brother Israel: Thou knowest all the labour that hath come upon us:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh, vnto the King of Edom; Thus saith thy brother Israel, Thou knowest all the trauaile that hath befallen vs:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Mosheh{gr.Moses} sent messengers from Kadesh{gr.Cades} to the king of Edom, saying, Thus says thy brother Israel; Thou knowest all the distress that has come upon us.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Mosheh sent messengers from Qadesh unto the king of Edom, Thus saith thy brother Yisrael, Thou knowest all the travail that hath befallen us:

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And M מֹשֶׁה 4872
{4872} Prime
From H4871; drawing out (of the water), that is, rescued; Mosheh, the Israelitish lawgiver.
sent 7971
{7971} Prime
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
messengers 4397
{4397} Prime
From an unused root meaning to despatch as a deputy; a messenger; specifically of God, that is, an angel (also a prophet, priest or teacher).
from K קָדֵשׁ 6946
{6946} Prime
The same as H6945; sanctuary; Kadesh, a place in the Desert.
(4480) Complement
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
unto x413
(0413) Complement
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
the king 4428
{4428} Prime
From H4427; a king.
of m אֱדוֹם, 123
{0123} Prime
From H0122; red (see Genesis 25:25); Edom, the elder twin-brother of Jacob; hence the region (Idumaea) occuped by him.
Thus x3541
(3541) Complement
From the prefix K and H1931; properly like this, that is, by implication (of manner) thus (or so); also (of place) here (or hither); or (of time) now.
saith 559
{0559} Prime
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
thy brother 251
{0251} Prime
A primitive word; a brother (used in the widest sense of literal relationship and metaphorical affinity or resemblance (like H0001)).
Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל, 3478
{3478} Prime
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Thou x859
(0859) Complement
A primitive pronoun of the second person; thou and thee, or (plural) ye and you.
knowest 3045
{3045} Prime
A primitive root; to know (properly to ascertain by seeing); used in a great variety of senses, figuratively, literally, euphemistically and inferentially (including observation, care, recognition; and causatively instruction, designation, punishment, etc.).
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
all x3605
(3605) Complement
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the travail 8513
{8513} Prime
From H3811; distress.
that x834
(0834) Complement
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
hath befallen 4672
{4672} Prime
A primitive root; properly to come forth to, that is, appear or exist; transitively to attain, that is, find or acquire; figuratively to occur, meet or be present.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Numbers 20:14-16

_ _ Moses sent messengers ... to the king of Edom — The encampment at Kadesh was on the confines of the Edomite territory, through which the Israelites would have had an easy passage across the Arabah by Wady-el-Ghuweir, so that they could have continued their course around Moab, and approached Palestine from the east [Roberts]. The Edomites, being the descendants of Esau and tracing their line of descent from Abraham as their common stock, were recognized by the Israelites as brethren, and a very brotherly message was sent to them.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Numbers 20:14-21

_ _ We have here the application made by Israel to the Edomites. The nearest way to Canaan from the place where Israel now lay encamped was through the country of Edom. Now,

_ _ I. Moses sends ambassadors to treat with the king of Edom for leave to pass through his country, and gives them instructions what to say, Numbers 20:14-17. 1. They are to claim kindred with the Edomites: Thus saith thy brother Israel. Both nations descended from Abraham and Isaac, their common ancestors; Esau and Jacob, the two fathers of their respective nations, were twin-brothers; and therefore, for relation-sake, they might reasonably expect this kindness from them; nor needed the Edomites to fear that their brother Israel had any ill design upon them, or would take any advantages against them. 2. They are to give a short account of the history and present state of Israel, which, they take it for granted, the Edomites were no strangers to. And in this there was a double plea: — (1.) Israel had been abused by the Egyptians, and therefore ought to be pitied and succoured by their relations: “The Egyptians vexed us and our fathers, but we may hope our brethren the Edomites will not be so vexatious.” (2.) Israel had been wonderfully saved by the Lord, and therefore ought to be countenanced and favoured (Numbers 20:16): “We cried unto the Lord, and he sent an angel, the angel of his presence, the angel of the covenant, the eternal Word, who had brought us forth out of Egypt, and led us hither.” It was therefore the interest of the Edomites to ingratiate themselves with a people that had so great an interest in heaven and were so much its favourites, and it was at their peril if they offered them any injury. It is our wisdom and duty to be kind to those whom God is pleased to own, and to take his people for our people. Come in, thou blessed of the Lord. 3. They are humbly to beg a passport through their country. Though God himself, in the pillar of cloud and fire, was Israel's guide, in following which they might have justified their passing through any man's ground against all the world, yet God would have this respect paid to the Edomites, to show that no man's property ought to be invaded under colour of religion. Dominion is founded in providence, not in grace. Thus when Christ was to pass through a village of the Samaritans, to whom his coming was likely to be offensive, he sent messengers before his face to ask leave, Luke 9:52. Those that would receive kindness must not disdain to request it. 4. They are to give security for the good behaviour of the Israelites in this march, that they would keep in the king's high road, that they would commit no trespass upon any man's property, either in ground or water, that they would not so much as make use of a well without paying for it, and that they would make all convenient speed, as fast as they could well go on their feet, Numbers 20:17, Numbers 20:19. Nothing could be offered more fair and neighbourly.

_ _ II. The ambassadors returned with a denial, Numbers 20:18. Edom, that is, the king of Edom, as protector of his country, said, Thou shalt not pass by me; and, when the ambassadors urged it further, he repeated the denial (Numbers 20:20) and threatened, if they offered to enter his country, it should be at their peril; he raised his trained bands to oppose them. Thus Edom refused to give Israel passage. This was owing, 1. To their jealousy of the Israelites; they feared they should receive promises. And truly, had this numerous army been under any other discipline and command than that of the righteous God himself, who would no more suffer them to do wrong than to take wrong, there might have been cause for this jealousy; but what could they fear from a nation that had statutes and judgments so righteous? 2. It was owing to the old enmity which Esau bore to Israel. If they had no reason to fear damage by them, yet they were not willing to show so much kindness to them. Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing, and now the hatred revived, when the blessing was ready to be inherited. God would hereby discover the ill-nature of the Edomites to their shame, and try the good-nature of the Israelites to their honour: they turned away from him, and did not take this occasion to quarrel with him. Note, We must not think it strange if the most reasonable requests be denied by unreasonable men, and if those be affronted by men whom God favours. I as a deaf man heard not. After this indignity which the Edomites offered to Israel God gave them a particular caution not to abhor an Edomite (Deuteronomy 23:7), though the Edomites had shown such an abhorrence of them, to teach us in such cases not to meditate revenge.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Numbers 20:14

All the travel — All the wanderings and afflictions of our parents and of us their children, which doubtless have come to thine ears.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Numbers 20:14

And Moses sent messengers from Kadesh unto the king of (i) Edom, Thus saith thy brother Israel, Thou knowest all the travail that hath befallen us:

(i) Because Jacob or Israel was Esau's brother, who was called Edom.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Judges 11:16-17 But when Israel came up from Egypt, and walked through the wilderness unto the Red sea, and came to Kadesh; ... Then Israel sent messengers unto the king of Edom, saying, Let me, I pray thee, pass through thy land: but the king of Edom would not hearken [thereto]. And in like manner they sent unto the king of Moab: but he would not [consent]: and Israel abode in Kadesh.

thy brother:

Genesis 32:3-4 And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the country of Edom. ... And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye speak unto my lord Esau; Thy servant Jacob saith thus, I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now:
Deuteronomy 2:4-25 And command thou the people, saying, Ye [are] to pass through the coast of your brethren the children of Esau, which dwell in Seir; and they shall be afraid of you: take ye good heed unto yourselves therefore: ... This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the nations [that are] under the whole heaven, who shall hear report of thee, and shall tremble, and be in anguish because of thee.
Deuteronomy 23:7 Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite; for he [is] thy brother: thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian; because thou wast a stranger in his land.
Obadiah 1:10-12 For [thy] violence against thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off for ever. ... But thou shouldest not have looked on the day of thy brother in the day that he became a stranger; neither shouldest thou have rejoiced over the children of Judah in the day of their destruction; neither shouldest thou have spoken proudly in the day of distress.
Malachi 1:2 I have loved you, saith the LORD. Yet ye say, Wherein hast thou loved us? [Was] not Esau Jacob's brother? saith the LORD: yet I loved Jacob,

befallen us:
Heb. found us,
Exodus 18:8 And Moses told his father in law all that the LORD had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, [and] all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and [how] the LORD delivered them.
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Gn 32:3. Ex 18:8. Dt 2:4; 23:7. Jg 11:16. Ob 1:10. Mal 1:2.

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